TABLE 3

Potential risk factors for incident sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in adolescence

No SDBSnoringAHI 2–<5 events per hAHI ≥5 events per hp-value
Children n15410511244
Males %44.251.467.070.5<0.001
Ethnic minority %16.918.132.125.00.017
 Black9.710.520.59.10.022
 Hispanic4.55.78.99.1
 Other2.61.92.76.8
Baseline
 Age years8.3±1.68.7±1.78.8±1.79.6±1.5<0.001
 BMI percentile59.9±28.661.4±29.267.1±27.270.0±30.30.072
 Waist cm63.9±9.765.2±9.666.7±10.770.3±14.10.003
 Neck cm28.2±0.329.2±0.629.2±0.330.4±0.60.017
 Tonsil size %0.945
  Tonsil removed7.97.16.77.0
  Normal52.557.153.345.6
  Abnormal39.635.740.046.5
 Mild SDB %28.633.333.938.60.578
 Tonsil inflammation %5.02.14.87.10.987
 Palate length %5.77.313.79.50.344
 Chronic sinusitis %17.013.315.56.80.385
 Wheeze %8.613.517.313.60.210
 Allergies %40.138.141.829.50.544
Follow-up
 Age years16.4±2.116.6±2.217.3±2.218.4±2.1<0.001
 History of tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy %7.89.514.318.20.147
 Tanner %0.148
  Prepubertal0.71.01.90.0
  Early pubertal3.40.00.00.0
  Mid puberty14.318.311.17.3
  Late puberty45.644.252.841.5
  Adulthood36.136.534.351.2
 BMI percentile60.0±28.561.5±28.870.8±26.579.0±25.6<0.001
 Change in BMI percentile %0.1±22.20.2±23.03.8±23.09.0±24.10.090
 Minimum SpO2 %92.0±5.691.7±4.291.0±5.090.1±6.60.122
 Neck cm34.1±2.935.0±3.337.1±7.238.6±4.7<0.001
 Waist cm76.3±10.578.7±12.383.3±13.090.8±18.3<0.001
 Waist/whole body fat ratio0.06±0.010.06±0.010.07±0.020.07±0.02<0.001
 Hip/whole body fat ratio0.18±0.020.18±0.030.18±0.020.17±0.020.055
 Waist/hip fat ratio0.33±0.090.34±0.090.39±0.110.42±0.14<0.001
 Visceral adipose tissue cm249.5±29.654.7±35.067.9±41.587.3±53.9<0.001
 Subcutaneous adipose tissue cm2197.3±127.2210.9±167.9228.3±167.4261.8±180.40.095
 Deviated septum %2.63.84.52.30.829
 Chronic sinusitis/rhinitis %6.56.76.313.60.391
 Heartburn %12.412.517.018.20.592
 Abdominal pain %9.27.69.82.30.445
 Regurgitation %3.90.06.30.00.034
 Vomiting %2.02.92.70.00.713
 Chronic cough %3.33.87.12.30.382
 Chronic cough with exercise %8.510.510.76.80.835
 Wheezing/dyspnoea %13.119.019.66.80.131
 Respiratory night-time symptoms %2.03.85.46.80.362
 Asthma %5.811.28.74.50.340
 Headaches %26.125.023.231.80.737
 Confusional episodes %1.31.92.70.00.664
 Seizures %3.93.81.80.00.443
 CNS trauma %15.712.515.218.20.821
 Thyroid disease %0.71.01.84.50.272
 Joint pain %13.921.017.011.40.372
 Allergies %60.157.162.536.40.022
 Toxic environmental exposure %3.91.03.64.50.517
  • Data are presented as mean±sd unless otherwise stated. This table is based on subjects who were included in both the baseline and follow-up assessment excluding those that had an apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥5 events per h at baseline. The statistical analysis of the detailed obesity variables was based on normalised values. The descriptive data reported in this table represent the recorded data. These variables include: neck and waist circumference; waist/whole body fat ratio; hip/whole body fat ratio; visceral adipose tissue; and subcutaneous adipose tissue. BMI: body mass index; SpO2: arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry; CNS: central nervous system.