TABLE 1

Main clinical characteristics

COPDACOSp-value
Patients n (%)1483 (75)493 (25)
Age years63.8±6.962.3±7.7<0.01
Sex females n (%)447 (30)226 (46)<0.01
COPD duration ≥10 years n (%)456 (31)203 (41)<0.01
Body mass index kg·m−226.3±5.527.0±6.10.08
Inhaled steroids n (%)1022 (69)403 (82)<0.01
Long-acting β2 agonist n (%)944 (64)398 (81)<0.01
Long-acting muscarinic antagonist n (%)641 (43)255 (52)<0.01
Statin n (%)322 (22)134 (27)0.01
Smoking history pack-years49.8±26.945.4±27.4<0.01
Former smoker n (%)942 (64)317 (64)0.76
Chronic bronchitis n (%)539 (36)157 (32)0.07
Emphysema n (%)1236 (94)452 (95)0.44
FEV1 % reference
 Pre-bronchodilator44.1±14.743.5±15.40.29
 Post-bronchodilator48.3±15.547.9±16.20.55
Eosinophils ×109·L−10.18 (0.17)0.18 (0.17)0.22
Eosinophils ×109·L−1 n (%)0.41
 <150559 (39)172 (36)
 150–300579 (40)199 (42)
 >300293 (20)108 (23)
White blood cells ×109·L−17.60 (2.70)7.60 (2.50)0.73
Neutrophils ×109·L−14.92 (2.30)4.88 (2.09)0.31
Fibrinogen mg·dL−1444 (130)462 (122)<0.01
Surfactant protein D ng·mL−1122 (90)115 (81)0.12
Club cell secretory protein ng·mL−15.03 (3.44)4.91 (3.75)0.53
High sensitivity CRP mg·L−13.20 (5.70)3.10 (5.50)0.74
IL-6 pg·mL−11.55 (2.32)1.49 (2.48)0.48
IL-8 pg·mL−17.15 (10.20)7.10 (8.70)0.47
CCL-18 pg·mL−1104 (54)108 (52)0.30
TNF-ɑ pg·mL−12.35 (4.70)2.35 (22.95)<0.01
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ACOS: asthma–COPD overlap syndrome; CRP: C-reactive protein; IL: interleukin; CCL-18: chemokine ligand 18; TNF: tumour necrosis factor.