TABLE 1

Subject characteristics and results of quantification of activin-A, activin-A receptor type IIA (Act-RIIA), activin-like kinase (ALK)-4 and airway angiogenesis in all groups examined

Healthy controlsMild/moderate asthmaticsSevere asthmatics
Subjects161922
Age years46.5 (38.7–56.7)43.0 (38–61)50.5 (39.4–59)
Male/female10/66/133/19
Asthma duration yearsNA30 (2–63)34 (12–63)
BMI kg·m-226.7 (24.4–28.8)27.3 (23.4–29.9)29.3 (25.0–31.6)
FEV1 % pred92.0 (85.3–103.1)82.2 (68.0–89.8)*67.2 (52.8–79.4)**, ***
Atopy01117
IgEIU·mL−133 (19.5–43.7)73 (31–168)120 (63–366)**, ***
LABA1622
LTRA4
ICS μg·day−1#NA600±551800±89
OCS mg·day−1NANA12 (9±1)
Activin-A levels pg·mL−1
 Serum103 (63–169)265 (110–367)206 (123–342)
 BALF334 (102–391)517 (370–612)499 (343–569)
Airway epithelial cells % of total epithelial cells
 Activin-A+4 (2–19.2)55 (32–68)45.5 (25.7–68)
 Act-RIIA+64 (48–75)29 (10–38.5)18 (4–34)
 ALK-4+58.5 (43.2–75.5)51 (42–69.5)39 (21–49)
Airway subepithelial cells·mm−2
 Activin-A+10 (4–27.1)140 (56–257)293 (182–555)
 Act-RIIA+240 (193–305)137 (18.5–175.5)44 (0–132)
 ALK-4+203 (139–333)120 (69–160)89 (12–170)
Angiogenesis vessels·mm−280.5 (59.7–99.7)158.0 (98–220)207.5 (151.3–300.5)
  • Data are presented as n, median (interquartile range) or mean±sem, unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; LABA: long-acting β2 agonists; LTRA: leukotriene receptor antagonists; ICS: inhaled corticosteroids; OCS: oral corticosteroids; BALF: bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; NA: not applicable. #: beclometasone dipropionate chlorofluorocarbon equivalent dosage; : prednisolone equivalent dosage. *: p<0.05 compared to healthy controls; **: p<0.01 compared to mild/moderate asthmatics; ***: p<0.001 compared to healthy controls.