Treatable behaviour/lifestyle risk factors of airway diseases

Treatable traits  (can coexist)Imp.Rec.Diagnostic criteriaTreatmentMain expected benefit
First choiceEfficacySecond choice
Smoking and other exposures (biomass, workplace, others)++++++Cotinine, exhaled concentration of carbon monoxideCessation support, nicotine replacement, avoid environmental exposures++AntidepressantsS, E, P
Exposure to sensitising agents/pollution++++Radio allergen absorbance test, skin-prick testingAvoidance, desensitisation+Air filtration systemsS, E
Symptom perception+++Mismatch between subjective and objective findingsReassurance, breathing exercises++S
Side-effects of other treatments+++Monitored withdrawalTreatment optimisation+Change deviceS
Inhaler device polypharmacy++++Three or more different types of inhaler devices being usedMedication review and device rationalisation+S
Adherence to treatment+++++Prescription refill rate, chipped inhalersEducation, self-management support+S, E
Poor inhalation technique++++Observation, training devicesEducation+S, E
Family and social support++++Family therapy+S, E
  • Imp.: importance; Rec.: recognisability. Diagnostic criteria and treatments options in italics should be considered as experimental (under current investigation) or having an unfavourable risk–benefit ratio. Expected treatment benefits on: E: exacerbations (rate/severity); S: symptoms; P: prognosis.