TABLE 4

Key tests on respiratory samples for patients with cavitary or nodular pulmonary infiltrate in non-immunocompromised patients

TestStrength of recommendationQuality of evidence
Direct microscopy for hyphae#AII
Fungal culture (sputum or BAL)AIII
HistologyAII
Fungal culture (transthoracic aspiration)BII
Aspergillus PCR (respiratory secretion)+CII
Bacterial culture (sputum or BAL)CIIt
  • BAL: bronchoalveloar lavage. #: positive microscopy is a strong indicator of infection; : bacterial culture plates are less sensitive than fungal culture plates; +: PCR more sensitive than culture.