Innate and adaptive pulmonary host defence mechanisms impaired by smoking [45]

Innate defencesMucociliary clearance, epithelial barrier function, production of antiviral and antimicrobial proteins by respiratory epithelium
Phagocytic activity of small alveolar macrophages
Antigen-presenting activities of pulmonary dendritic cells
Antiviral activities of plasmacytoid dendritic cells
Antitumour and antiviral activities of natural killer cells
Adaptive defencesProduction of specific antibodies
Cell-mediated immunity (production of interferon-γ)