Potential adjunctive/anti-inflammatory therapies [164–166]

StrategyPotential therapies
Enhancing GIT mucosal repairBovine serum colostrum, micronutrient supplementation, pro- and pre-biotics
Reducing microbial translocation and endotoxinRifaximin, sevelamer carbonate
Intensifying HAARTMaraviroc and raltegravir
Treating co-infectionsValganciclovir, interferon-α and ribavirin
Reducing activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cellsChloroquine and hydroxychloroquine
Decreasing TGF-β1-mediated lymph node fibrosisPirfenidone, lisinopril
Immune modulators/anti-inflammatory agentsHMG CoA reductase inhibitors, minocycline, selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, leflunomide and intravenous immunoglobulin
Inhibiting caspase-1 activity and cleavage of pro-IL-1βVX-765
  • GIT: gastrointestinal tract; HAART: highly active antiretroviral therapy; TGF: transforming growth factor; IL: interleukin; HMG CoA: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A.