TABLE 1

Baseline demographic and disease characteristics of subjects with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH) at baseline

Group 3# PHGroup 2# PHNo PH, elevated PAWPNo PH, PAWP not elevated
Demographicsp-value versus Group 3 PHDemographicsp-value versus Group 3 PHDemographicsp-value versus Group 3 PH
Subjects n682521374
Age years68.0±6.1467.6±6.280.6266.1±7.650.3065.5±7.440.016
Sex male/female47 (69.1)/ 21 (30.9)20 (80.0)/ 5 (20.0)0.4420 (81.0)/ 4 (19.0)0.41267 (71.4)/ 107 (28.6)0.77
BMI kg·m−231.4±5.1232.8±2.870.05130.4±4.810.5429.2±4.38<0.001
Smoking status0.100.760.78
 Never22 (32.4)4 (16.0)5 (23.8)124 (33.2)
 Current2 (2.9)3 (12.0)07 (1.9)
 Former44 (64.7)18 (72.0)16 (76.2)243 (65.0)
Ethnicity0.320.460.20
 American Indian1 (1.5)001 (0.3)
 Asian001 (4.8)4 (1.1)
 Black or African heritage1 (1.5)000
 Collection of data not permitted0003 (0.8)
 Other7 (10.3)01 (4.8)34 (9.1)
 White59 (86.8)25 (100)19 (90.5)332 (88.8)
FEV1 % predicted74.1±14.3877.0±11.950.2375.9±15.310.6776.6±15.00.12
FVC % predicted66.9 (12.09)69.9 (11.42)0.1868.2 (12.07)0.6669.5 (13.78)0.12
DLCO % predicted39.1±14.7840.5 (11.97)0.4143.5±9.650.06444.1±13.690.002
6MWD m356±131.3372±108.30.78400±96.40.16427±115.8<0.001
Residual volume % predicted62±27.055±19.40.3854±20.50.2561±22.90.88
Resting % O2 saturation88±2090±20.80.03992±16.50.01389±21.8<0.001
Lowest % O2 saturation  on exercise84±5.888±6.30.00887±5.70.02789±5.3<0.001
Cardiac output L·min−15.26±1.315.58±1.580.655.2±1.270.955.42±1.490.47
Cardiac index L·min−1·m−22.7±0.682.6±0.710.52.6±0.520.442.8±0.770.53
Mean PAP mmHg29.6±7.5333.4±7.350.00221.9±1.90<0.00117.7±3.82<0.001
Pulmonary vascular  resistance mmHg·L−1·min3.9±3.092.6±1.46>0.0011.0±0.51<0.0011.8±0.90<0.001
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. p-values were calculated by Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. PAWP: pulmonary artery wedge pressure; BMI: body mass index; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; 6MWD: 6-min walk distance; PAP: pulmonary arterial pressure. #: World Health Organization group; : adjusted for haemoglobin.