TABLE 1

Pregnancy and child characteristics by quartiles of maternal body mass index (BMI)

Maternal BMI per quartilep-value
1234
Maternal and pregnancy characteristics
 Maternal BMI kg·m−220.5±1.123.0±0.625.2±0.830.0±3.2<0.01
 Maternal age at birth years32.7±3.732.7±3.632.8±3.633.0±3.80.52
 Gestational age days278.3±9.6279.2±9.6278.2±10.0278.9±9.80.29
 Higher education#384 (69.1)400 (74.5)390 (71.2)319 (59.7)0.52
 Maternal atopy210 (37.5)215 (38.9)204 (36.9)235 (42.5)0.22
 Maternal European ethnicity466 (83.4)462 (83.5)486 (87.4)474 (86.0)0.17
 Smoke exposure during pregnancy57 (10.1)63 (11.2)69 (12.3)96 (17.1)<0.01
Child characteristics at neonatal visit (n=2257)
 Female303 (53.6)292 (51.9)280 (49.6)276 (48.9)0.37
 Birthweight g3451±4753528±4853512±4993634±542<0.01
 Birth length cm50.6±2.250.9±2.250.8±2.451.1±2.3<0.01
 Weight growth during the first 3 months of life g·day−128.8±5.229.2±5.628.8±5.628.9±5.20.71
 Length growth during the first 3 months of life cm·day−10.12±0.010.12±0.010.12±0.010.12±0.010.30
Crs mL·kPa−146.5±11.046.9±11.046.0±11.347.0±12.00.51
Rrs kPa·L−1·s−16.2±2.16.6±2.16.7±1.96.7±2.00.69
 Older siblings312 (55.3)302 (53.7)319 (56.9)296 (52.7)0.52
 Daycare during the first year of life0.12
  None153 (29.2)132 (26.2)120 (23.3)151 (30.1)
  0–3 months29 (5.5)24 (4.8)23 (4.5)21 (4.2)
  4–6 months59 (11.3)50 (9.9)49 (9.5)37 (7.4)
  >6 months283 (54.0)297 (59.0)323 (62.7)293 (58.4)
 Duration of breastfeeding<0.01
  None102 (18.4)96 (17.4)108 (19.6)163 (29.5)
  0–3 months237 (42.9)258 (46.8)258 (46.7)244 (44.2)
  4–6 months119 (21.5)140 (25.4)110 (19.9)91 (16.5)
  >6 months95 (17.2)57 (10.3)76 (13.8)54 (9.8)
 Pet keeping196 (34.7)206 (36.6)217 (38.4)225 (39.9)0.30
Child characteristics at 5-year visit (n=680)
 Weight19.4±2.320.1±2.520.3±2.820.7±3.1<0.01
 Height114.8±5.0115.6±4.6115.5±5.2115.1±4.60.48
 FEV1 L1.24±0.201.25±0.231.31±0.761.29±0.260.35
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. Crs: compliance of the respiratory system; Rrs: resistance of the respiratory system; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1s. #: higher vocational or university education.