TABLE 1

Usage of chest radiography (CXR) in the 22 high tuberculosis burden countries

CountryActive case findingIntegral component of diagnostic algorithms in NTP guidelineHow often CXR usedFrequency of prescribing ATT solely based on CXR findingsUse as an adjunct test for HIVAvailability of portable CXRAvailability of computer aided diagnostic softwareAverage price NTP pays for CXR USDRoutinely used in diagnosis of paediatric patients
AfghanistanInconsistent#Yes, as a follow-up for smear-negative casesSometimes (10–50%)SometimesUnknownYesInconsistent1.50–3.00Yes
BangladeshNoYesOften (>50%)SometimesYesYesInconsistent5.00–7.00Yes
BrazilYes+YesSometimes (10–50%)SometimesYesYesNo4.63Yes
CambodiaYesYesOften (>50%)RarelyYesYesNoUnknown§Yes
ChinaYesYesSometimes (10–50%)SometimesInconsistentYesYes10.00–18.00Yes
DRCYesYesRarely (<10%)InconsistentInconsistentNoNo15.00–20.00Inconsistent
EthiopiaNoYesInconsistentRarelyYesUnknownNo3.00–5.00Yes
IndiaNoYes, as a follow-up for smear-negative casesRarely (<10%)RarelyYesYesNo1–4Yes
IndonesiaNoInconsistentInconsistentInconsistentYesYesNo5.00Inconsistent
KenyaNoYesRarely (<10%)RarelyYesYesInconsistentUnknownYes
MozambiqueNoYesInconsistentSometimesYesNoNo12.00No
MyanmarYesYesRarely (<10%)RarelyYesYesInconsistent5.00Yes
NigeriaNoYesRarely (<10%)SometimesYesYesInconsistent5.00–15.00Yes
PakistanUnknownYes, as a follow-up for smear-negative casesRarely (<10%)RarelyYesYesNo1.00–5.00Yes
PhilippinesYesYesSometimes (10–50%)InconsistentYesYesNo3.00–5.00Yes
Russian FederationYesYesRarely (<10%)RarelyInconsistentYesInconsistentUnknownYes
South AfricaNoNoSometimes (10–50%)SometimesYesYesNoUnknownYes
United Republic of TanzaniaUnknownYesInconsistentSometimesYesNoNo5.00–6.00Yes
ThailandYesYesInconsistentSometimesYesYesNo3.00–6.00Yes
UgandaNoYesRarely (<10%)SometimesYesNoNo4.00–5.00Yes
VietnamYesYesRarely (<10%)RarelyYesYesNo1.50–3.50Yes
ZimbabweNoYesRarely (<10%)SometimesYesYesNo20.00–30.00Yes
  • NTP: National Tuberculosis Programme; ATT: antituberculosis treatment; USD: US dollar; DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo. #: respondents provided discrepant results where no consensus could be reached; : the majority of respondents indicated CXR is not used; +: the majority of respondents indicated CXR is used; §: the respondents were unable to answer the question.