TABLE 2

Sex- and age-adjusted prevalence of sociodemographic characteristics, environmental exposures and risk factors at baseline

HealthyAsthma aloneACOSCOPD aloneOverall p-value#
Subjects5659941218166
Female52.2 (50.8–53.6)61.2 (58.0–64.3)***47.7 (41.0–54.3)47.5 (39.9–55.2)<0.001
Age >35 years50.8 (47.8–53.7)44.2 (40.1–48.2)**50.5 (43.2–57.7)60.4 (52.5–68.3)*<0.001
Low education6.7 (3.7–9.8)7.4 (3.8–11.0)7.9 (3.3–12.5)7.0 (2.4–11.7)0.80
Lifetime smoker  (>0 versus 0 pack-years smoked)55.1 (52.6–57.7)56.5 (52.6–60.3)64.1 (57.3–70.9)*72.4 (65.1–79.7)***<0.001
Heavy smoker (≥15 versus  0.1–14.9 pack-years smoked)27.1 (24.1–30.1)30.2 (25.1–35.2)35.1 (26.0–44.3)51.5 (40.6–62.3)***<0.001
ETS57.1 (52.1–62.0)60.0 (54.3–65.7)58.3 (49.9–66.7)66.0 (57.2–74.4)*0.084
Occupational exposure to vapours,  dust, gas or fumes42.0 (37.2–46.7)45.9 (40.2–51.6)*43.7 (35.2–52.2)57.4 (48.1–66.7)***0.001
Family asthma11.1 (9.9–12.3)24.9 (21.6–28.1)***26.3 (20.0–32.6)***18.4 (12.1–24.7)**<0.001
Respiratory infection in childhood8.7 (7.4–10.1)17.4 (14.2–20.6)***20.0 (14.0–25.9)***13.0 (7.7–18.4)<0.001
Mother smoked during subject's  childhood18.6 (13.3–23.8)19.1 (13.3–24.9)20.3 (12.8–27.7)17.5 (10.1–25.0)0.89
Cat in childhood47.9 (44.3–51.4)47.8 (43.2–52.4)45.0 (37.4–52.6)55.6 (47.2–64.1)0.22
Dog in childhood49.1 (44.3–53.8)48.4 (42.8–54.0)43.8 (35.5–52.1)50.7 (41.4–59.9)0.54
Currently keeping a cat17.6 (14.5–20.6)20.9 (16.8–25.1)*15.6 (10.3–21.0)12.0 (6.7–17.3)0.013
Currently keeping a dog15.6 (13.1–18.2)18.1 (14.6–21.7)17.1 (11.7–22.5)10.9 (5.7–16.1)0.092
Mould in the house33.0 (28.4–37.6)35.7 (30.1–41.3)30.9 (23.1–38.6)30.9 (22.1–39.7)0.37
  • Data are presented as n or % (95% CI), unless otherwise stated. Data were adjusted using logistic regression models with the characteristic in the first column as the dependent variable, sex, age (with the exception of sex and age, which were only adjusted for age and sex, respectively), and disease status as independent variables, and a random intercept term for European Community Respiratory Health Survey centre and sample. ACOS: asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome; ETS: environmental tobacco smoke. #: refers to the comparison across the groups; p<0.05 indicates that at least one of the prevalence rates is significantly different from the others; : lifetime nonsmokers excluded. **: p<0.01; ***: p<0.001 for the comparison of the disease group with the healthy category.