TABLE 3

Sex- and age-adjusted prevalence of clinical characteristics at baseline

HealthyAsthma aloneACOSCOPD aloneOverall p-value#
Subjects5659941218166
Wheezing in the last 12 months22.1 (18.1–26.0)77.9 (73.3–82.5)***87.3 (82.1–92.6)***38.2 (28.7–47.7)***<0.001
Trouble with breathing23.1 (18.5–27.7)70.5 (64.5–76.5)***79.2 (72.1–86.3)***35.3 (25.3–45.3)**<0.001
MRC dyspnoea score >118.0 (15.0–21.1)36.0 (30.5–41.4)***38.3 (29.9–46.7)***27.9 (19.5–36.3)**<0.001
Chronic bronchitis+11.1 (9.2–13.0)25.0 (20.7–29.3)***30.6 (23.3–38.0)***22.9 (15.3–30.4)***<0.001
AHR3.5 (2.8–4.2)66.6 (62.0–71.4)***92.1 (87.7–96.4)***14.5 (7.5–21.4)***<0.001
Allergic rhinitis24.1 (21.3–26.9)60.5 (55.9–65.1)***55.5 (47.8–63.3)***24.7 (17.5–32.0)<0.001
Lifetime eczema38.7 (35.3–42.1)49.4 (44.8–54.0)***45.0 (37.5–52.6)39.1 (30.9–47.4)<0.001
Allergen sensitisation28.4 (25.7–31.1)64.4 (60.2–68.6)***67.4 (60.1–74.7)***26.8 (19.1–34.4)<0.001
Use of medicines (inhaler, oral,  injection, suppository or other  remedy) for breathing problems20.3 (15.3–25.3)71.2 (64.4–78.1)***75.8 (67.4–84.2)***22.2 (13.0–31.4)<0.001
Hospital/ER admission for  breathing problems5.0 (3.8–6.1)22.6 (18.1–27.2)***29.9 (22.2–37.6)***6.9 (2.7–11.1)<0.001
FEV1 <80% pred1.4 (1.0–1.8)4.5 (3.1–6.0)***33.1 (25.6–40.5)***16.4 (10.3–22.5)***<0.001
FVC <80% pred1.0 (0.6–1.3)1.3 (0.5–2.0)3.4 (1.1–5.8)**1.3 (0.0–2.9)0.024
FEV1 % pred106.9 (105.9–107.9)101.5 (100.3–102.7)***85.1 (83.2–86.9)***92.5 (90.5–94.6)***<0.001
FVC % pred109.0 (108.0–110.0)106.9 (105.7–108.1)***107.6 (105.7–109.5)112.3 (110.2–114.4)**<0.001
  • Data are presented as n or % (95% CI), unless otherwise stated. Data were adjusted by using logistic regression models with the characteristic in the first column as the dependent variable, sex, age and disease status as independent variables, and a random intercept term for European Community Respiratory Health Survey centre and sample. ACOS: asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome; MRC: Medical Research Council; AHR: airway hyperresponsiveness; ER: emergency room; FEV1 : forced expiratory volume in 1 s; % pred: % predicted; FVC: forced vital capacity. #: refers to the comparison across the groups; p<0.05 indicates that at least one of the prevalence rates is significantly different from the others; : being troubled by shortness of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a slight hill; +: having cough or phlegm on most days for as long as 3 months each year for ≥2 years. **: p<0.01; ***: p<0.001 for the comparison of the disease group with the healthy category.