TABLE 3

Association of host factors with MTB-LAM-ELISA positivity in confirmed and probable TB cases

 SubjectsLAMRR (95% CI)p-value
Age5414 (26)1.07 (0.93–1.22)0.371
Sex    
 Female288 (29)1 
 Male266 (23)0.81 (0.32–2.03)0.650
HIV status    
 Negative263 (12)1 
 Positive2811 (39)3.40 (1.06–11.0)0.040
Immunosuppression    
 None or mild85 (63)1 
 Advanced or severe206 (30)0.48 (0.20–1.15)0.100
Proteinuria    
 No397 (18)1 
 Yes147 (50)2.79 (1.18–6.58)0.019
BMI for age    
 Z score5414 (26)0.76 (0.60–0.96)0.020
Died    
 No5112 (24)1 
 Yes32 (67)2.83 (1.09–7.32)0.032
TB classification    
 Confirmed TB188 (44)1 
 Probable TB366 (17)0.38 (0.15–0.93)0.033
  • Data are presented as n or n (%), unless otherwise specified. Results from separate univariable binomial log link regression models for each of the above variables. A significantly increased risk for a positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)- lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-ELISA result was found in participants with confirmed tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, concomitant HIV infection, proteinuria, low body mass index (BMI) and participants who died during the course of the trial. In a multivariable model, which only included HIV, BMI and proteinuria, the risk ratios (RRs) and p-values remained similar, demonstrating an independent association of these variables with LAM-positivity.