TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of children in different diagnostic classes

 Included childrenExcluded children#Confirmed TBProbable TBPossible TBMTB infectionNo TBp-value
Subjects n132451836431421
Sex male+70 (53)22 (50)7 (39)19 (53)22 (51)8 (57)14 (67)0.083
Age years6.8 (3.9–9.5)2.1 (0.7–5.5)7.3 (4.8–11.5)6.8 (3.9–9.4)7.2 (3.9–10.0)5.2 (2.6–8–8)5.9 (3.9–10.1)0.383
BMI for age z-score−0.44 (−1.5–0.4)−1.35 (−3.1–0.1)−1.21 (−2.6–0.1)−0.11 (−1.2–0.6)−0.96 (−2.0–0.2)0.56 (−0.3–1.1)−0.49 (−1.2–0.4)0.105
TST reactive44 (36)11 (31)10 (59)18 (55)5 (12)11 (92)0<0.001
Proteinuria >30 mg§13 (10)3 (20)4 (22)4 (11)4 (10)01 (5)0.104
Mortality11 (8)11 (24)03 (8)8 (19)00
Days to treatment21 (7–58)15 (5–40)9 (6–25)18 (7–44)31 (13–76)N/A40 (6–61)0.307
HIV-positive67 (51)19 (53)10 (56)18 (50)22 (51)4 (29)13 (62)0.688
In HIV-positive children:
 ART at baseline17 (25)3 (16)1 (10)5 (28)7 (32)04 (31)0.231
 no significant immunosuppressionƒ18 (27)1 (6)1 (10)5 (28)5 (24)1 (25)6 (46)0.062
 Mild immunosuppressionƒ5 (8)1 (6)2 (20)02 (10)01 (8)0.385
 advanced immunosuppressionƒ8 (12)03 (30)2 (11)1 (5%)1 (25)1 (8)0.162
 severe immunosuppressionƒ35 (53)15 (88)4 (40)11 (61)13 (62)2 (50)5 (38)0.940
  • Data are presented as n (%) or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. Site of tuberculosis for children with confirmed tuberculosis (TB): two perihilar infiltrate, nine hilar lymphadenopathy, three tuberculous bronchopneumonia, four tuberculous pleural effusion. Site of tuberculosis for children with probable TB: nine perihilar infiltrate, nine hilar lymphadenopathy, seven tuberculous bronchopneumonia, three tuberculous pleural effusion, three military TB, one cavitating pulmonary TB. MTB: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; BMI: body mass index; TST, tuberculin skin test; ART: antiretroviral therapy. #: for three of the 48 excluded children no further clinical data were available; : p-value for comparison between children with confirmed TB and no TB using Pearson's Chi-squared test for binary and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables; +: for one (excluded) child no sex information was available; §: for two included children no urine dipstick result was available; ƒ: for one included child no CD4 count was measured and the level of immunosuppression could not be calculated.