TABLE 1

Multivariate analysis: risk factors for early and late mortality in invasive pneumococcal pneumonia

RRR (95% CI)p-value
Early mortality
 Age (18–50 years versus >50 years)0.48 (0.17–1.33)0.157
 Male sex1.51 (0.76–3.02)0.24
 Previous pneumococcal vaccination1.16 (0.6–2.24)0.66
 Alcohol consumption2.28 (1.11–4.66)0.024
 Chronic heart disease2.71 (1.42–5.19)0.003
 Chronic liver disease0.85 (0.35–2.05)0.713
 Chronic neurological disease2.26 (1.05–4.85)0.037
 HIV infection1.77 (0.56–5.58)0.329
 Haematologic cancer1.93 (0.73–5.09)0.182
 Solid cancer2.13 (0.96–4.73)0.062
 High case fatality rate serotypes#1.98 (1.07–3.63)0.029
Late mortality  
 Age (18–50 years versus >50 years)0.53 (0.22–1.31)0.17
 Male sex1.22 (0.59–2.51)0.24
 Previous pneumococcal vaccination0.7 (0.32–1.52)0.366
 Alcohol consumption2.25 (1.12–4.53)0.023
 Chronic heart disease0.65 (0.24–1.76)0.401
 Chronic liver disease0.91 (0.4–2.07)0.813
 Chronic neurological disease0.96 (0.28–3.33)0.954
 HIV infection4 (1.55–10.3)0.004
 Haematologic cancer3.07 (1.21–7.76)0.018
 Solid cancer4.18 (1.96–8.92)<0.001
 High case fatality rate serotypes#1.81 (0.96–3.42)0.069
  • RRR: relative risk ratio. #: serotypes grouped as high case fatality rates are serotypes 3, 6A, 6B, 9N, 19A, 19F and 23F.