In vitro synergy of clarithromycin (CLR) and other second-line tuberculosis drugs

First author [ref.]StrainStrains nDrugsConcentration rangeFIC
Bergmann [38]CI, MDR-TB5CLR1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 × MIC1.00–2.00
Cavalieri [36]CI, MDR-TB6CLR2.0 μg·mL−11.125–1.250
14-OH-CLR0.5 μg·mL−1
Cavalieri [36]CI, MDR-TB5CLR:14-OH-CLR (4:1) EMBMIC of each drug and at four twofold dilutions lower0.06–0.13
Bosne-David [40]CI, MDR-TB14CLR2.0 μg·mL−10.05–0.49#
EMB1.2, 1.8, 2.5, 5 μg·mL−1
Bolhuis [57]CI, MDR-TB13CLR0–8 μg·mL−10.32–0.37 (MGIT)
Linezolid0–0.5 μg·mL−10.375–1.0 (ACM)
Ramón-García [58]H37RvCLR and Spectinomycin0.25 × MIC<0.51
AZI and Spectinomycin0.31–0.5
M.tuberculosis infected macrophagesCLR and Spectinomycin
AZI and Spectinomycin
  • FIC: fractional inhibitory concentration; CI: clinical isolate; MDR-TB: multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; MIC: minimal inhibitory concentration; 14-OH-CLR: 14-hydroxyclarithromycin; EMB: ethambutol; MGIT: Mycobacteria Growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system; ACM: absolute concentration method; AZI: azithromycin; M.tuberculosis: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. #: not measured by FIC but by X/Y quotient.