TABLE 1

Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of bacteraemic and non-bacteraemic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients

Bacteraemic CAPNon-bacteraemic CAPp-value
Patients n2672595
Demographic
 Age ≥65 years156±52.51535±59.20.028
 Male167 (56.2)1636 (63.0)0.022
 Current smoker83 (28.3)650 (25.1)0.24
 Current alcohol consumer48 (16.4)377 (14.6)0.43
Previous antibiotic#35 (12.5)560 (22.4)<0.001
Influenza vaccine83 (37.4)958 (43.9)0.062
Pneumococcal vaccine22 (10.0)367 (16.9)0.008
Inhaled corticosteroid50 (17.2)462 (18.0)0.74
Systemic corticosteroid3 (1.1)36 (1.5)0.61
Comorbidities185 (62.3)1643 (63.3)0.73
 Chronic respiratory disease108 (36.4)968 (37.3)0.75
 Chronic cardiovascular disease37 (12.5)459 (18.8)0.024
 Diabetes mellitus52 (18.2)417 (16.6)0.51
 Neurological disease52 (17.7)438 (17.0)0.78
 Chronic renal disease16 (5.4)165 (6.4)0.52
 Chronic liver disease18 (6.1)107 (4.1)0.12
Nursing-home#56 (2.2)5 (1.7)0.59
CURB-65 risk class 3–576 (25.9)436 (17.6)0.001
PSI risk class IV and V166 (55.9)1261 (48.6)0.017
ICU admission93 (31.3)445 (17.1)<0.001
Mechanical ventilation+0.001
 Not ventilated255 (85.9)2390 (92.1)<0.001
 Noninvasive18 (6.1)92 (3.5)0.032
 Invasive24 (8.1)113 (4.4)0.004
Length of hospital stay days9.0 (6.0–13.0)6.0 (4.0–10.0)<0.001
30-day mortality33 (11.1)154 (5.9)0.001
Appropriate empiric treatment282 (94.9)2446 (95.2)0.86
  • Data are presented as median±sd, n (%) or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. Percentages calculated on non-missing data. CURB-65: confusion, urea >7 mmol·L−1, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths·min−1, blood pressure <90 mmHg (systolic) ≤60 mmHg (diastolic), age ≥65 years; PSI: pneumonia severity index; ICU: intensive care unit. #: variables included in the definition of healthcare associated pneumonia; : patients could have >1 comorbidity; +: patients who initially received noninvasive ventilation but subsequently needed intubation were included in the invasive mechanical ventilation group. Bold indicates statistically significant