TABLEĀ 1

Framework of digital health interventions for tuberculosis (TB) care and control: opportunities for integration with non-communicable diseases

FunctionsSample interventions
Patient care and eDOTVirtual (video) directly observed treatment (VOT)
Drug administration monitoring devices
Enablers/incentives for adherence (cash transfers, free airtime) and quitting
eHealth portal to improve continuity of care in TB and tobacco control
Mobile smoking cessation services
Measures to ensure smoke-free clinics (citizen reporting, SMS reminders)
Surveillance and monitoringNotification of TB episodes to existing electronic surveillance systems
Reporting of adverse drug reactions (pharmacovigilance)
Household surveys on smoking using mobile phones
Studies of social determinants and smoking status
Client satisfaction polls
Operational research on transactions between community health workers, patients and facilities
Programmatic managementStock levels of drugs, medical devices and reagents
Management and coordination of logistics
Drug ordering and management systems
Laboratory information systems
Texting of laboratory results on TB and comorbidities (e.g. HIV, diabetes)
Database of patient location, contacts and health care facilities
Access to medical files via mobile devices
eLearningSelf-teaching utilities
Online courses and information on healthy lifestyles (e.g. smoking cessation, diabetes control)
Online advice to clinicians on clinical management (e.g. www.tbconsilium.org)
Applications proposing content, such as guidelines and diagnostic aids
Social networking and mobile awareness to increase knowledge amongst patients, family members and health services staff about TB and the dangers of tobacco use
  • eDOT: electronic directly observed treatment. Adapted from [12] with permission from the publisher.