Determinants of complicated grief at 6 months

VariablesUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
OR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-value
ICU characteristics
 Nurse involvement in clinical research1.57 (0.84–2.92)0.1551.75 (0.84–3.66)0.135
Physician and nurse characteristics
 Intensivist board certification before 20093.02 (1.38–6.60)0.0063.82 (1.57–9.34)0.003
 Nurses >2 years of ICU experience0.71 (0.41–1.23)0.221
Patient characteristics
 Age0.98 (0.96–0.99)0.017
 Length of ICU stay1.01 (1.00–1.02)0.1011.01 (1.00–1.02)0.155
 Need for vasopressors2.10 (1.20–3.68)0.009
 Patient died while intubated2.54 (1.53–4.22)<0.0012.12 (1.16–3.89)0.015
 Family involvement in EOL decision0.57 (0.35–0.92)0.022
 Family disagreement with EOL decision3.92 (1.79–8.60)0.001
Relative characteristics
 Female sex2.87 (1.67–4.94)<0.0013.07 (1.62–5.80)0.001
 Being the spouse1.96 (1.19–3.23)0.008
 Living alone1.64 (1.01–2.70)0.0441.97 (1.10–3.51)0.022
Relative reports that
 Patient's dignity was not respected3.18 (1.13–8.92)0.028
 Death was not anticipated2.33 (1.18–4.6)0.015
 Communication with physician was   unsatisfactory3.64 (1.92–6.91)<0.0013.27 (1.42–7.50)0.005
 Communication with nurses was   unsatisfactory3.21 (1.5–6.85)0.0032.26 (0.84–6.10)0.106
 Patient refused treatments#0.38 (0.17–0.86)0.0210.24 (0.08–0.69)0.008
 They did not say good bye to loved one2.28 (1.35–3.85)0.0022.47 (1.30–4.68)0.006
 They were present at the time of death1.89 (1.18–3.03)0.0092.91 (1.62–5.21)<0.001
  • Uni- and multivariate analyses are shown. Univariate logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios; p-values were calculated using the Wald test. Mixed multivariate logistic regression with intensive care unit (ICU) as a random effect was performed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and p-values. Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness of fit test: p=0.764. EOL: end of life. #: patient decision to withhold or withdraw treatment for themselves.