New classes of drug introduced for respiratory diseases

Drug classExamplesDisease indicationComments
LTRAMontelukast and zafirlukastAsthmaWeakly effective
Anti-IgEOmalizumabSevere asthmaEffective in selected patients
PDE4 inhibitorsRoflumilastCOPDLow therapeutic index
EGFR inhibitorsGefitinib and erlotinibLung cancerSelected patients EGFR+
CFTR potentiatorsIvacaftorCystic fibrosisOnly for G551D mutation (∼4% of patients)
Endothelin receptor-  antagonistsBosentan, ambrisentan and macitentanGroup 1 pulmonary hypertensionRare disease
Soluble guanylate cyclase  activatorsRiociguatGroup 1 and 4 pulmonary hypertensionRare disease
PDE5 inhibitorsSildenafil and tadalafilGroup 1 pulmonary hypertensionRare disease
Anti-fibrotic agentsPirfenidone and nintedanibIPFRare disease
Anti-tuberculous drugsBedaquilineDrug-resistant TBPoor safety
  • LTRA: leukotriene receptor antagonist; PDE: phosphodiesterase; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; CFTR: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IPF: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; TB: tuberculosis.