TABLE 1 Baseline characteristics of the cohort by smoking status
Smoking statusp-value
Never-smokersEx-smokersCurrent smokers
Subjects n768747083950
Male sex36.889.991.3<0.001
Mean±sd age years47.0±21.763.8±17.449.9±16.8<0.001
Chinese91.498.397.6<0.001
Permanent residents89.398.097.5<0.001
Unemployment4.54.512.2<0.001
Homeless/overcrowded#6.810.15.4<0.001
Alcohol dependence0.41.44.4<0.001
Drug abuse0.10.74.1<0.001
Diabetes mellitus11.417.39.2<0.001
HIV0.30.50.60.034
Retreatment9.318.314.0<0.001
Lung involvement<0.001
 Extrapulmonary only17.75.95.7
 ≤right upper lobe56.453.556.8
 >right upper lobe25.940.637.5
Lung cavity8.813.817.2<0.001
Sputum status<0.001
 Smear and culture negative45.029.734.5
 Culture positive only25.830.828.8
 Smear positive29.239.636.7
  • Data are presented as %, unless otherwise stated. #: street sleeper, institutional clients, or living in bed spaces or cubicles; : total area of observable lung lesions as compared with that of the right upper lobe.