TABLE 3

Results of the multilevel regression models for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality rate and the COPD mortality rate ratio

Variablelog COPD mortality ratelog COPD mortality rate ratio for 2010:1990
19902010Coefficient (95% CI)p-value
Coefficient (95% CI)p-valueCoefficient (95% CI)p-value
log smoking index0.43 (0.33–0.52)<0.0010.38 (0.28–0.48)<0.001
log GNI−0.47 (−0.68– −0.26)<0.001−0.31 (−0.53– −0.08)0.01
log smoking index ratio for 2010:19900.004 (0.002–0.004)<0.001
log GNI ratio for 2010:1990−0.34 (−0.60– −0.06)0.02
Age years
 40–44Ref.Ref.Ref.
 45–490.69 (0.56–0.81)<0.0010.72 (0.58–0.86)<0.0010·04 (−0.04–0.11)0.38
 50–541.47 (1.35–1.59)<0.0011.47 (1.34–1.61)<0.0010·01 (−0.07–0.09)0.76
 55–592.16 (2.03–2.28)<0.0012.19 (2.05–2.32)<0.0010·05 (−0.03–0.13)0.24
 60–642.81 (2.68–2.94)<0.0012.88 (2.74–3.01)<0.0010·10 (0.02–0.18)0.02
 65–693.60 (3.47–3.72)<0.0013.76 (3.62–3.89)<0.0010·19 (0.11–0.27)<0.001
 70–743.91 (3.78–4.04)<0.0014.08 (3.94–4.22)<0.0010·20 (0.12–0.28)<0.001
 75–794.42 (4.29–4.55)<0.0014.62 (4.48–4.77)<0.0010·21 (0.13–0.29)<0.001
 >805.11 (4.98–5.24)<0.0015.43 (5.28–5.57)<0.0010·26 (0.18–0.34)<0.001
Sex
 MaleRef.Ref.Ref.
 Female−0.56 (−0.62– −0.50)<0.001−0.64 (−0.70– −0.57)<0.001−0.12 (−0.16– −0.07)<0.001
  • GNI: gross national income; Ref.: reference.