TABLE 1 Preferred and alternative treatment regimens by resistance pattern
Drug resistancePreferenceDuration (months)Regimen
TypePattern
SensitiveNonePreferred2HRZE
4HR
MDRIsoniazid and rifampicinPreferred8SL-inj, FQ, Pto/Eto, Cs/Trd, E, Z
12FQ, Pto/Eto, Cs/Trd, E, Z
Alternative8SL-inj, FQ, PAS, Cs/Trd, E, Z
12FQ, PAS, Cs/Trd, E, Z
Pre-XDRinjMDR + resistance against SL-injPreferred20FQ, Pto/Eto, Cs/Trd, Lzd, E, Z
Alternative20FQ, PAS, Cs/Trd, Lzd, E, Z
Pre-XDRfqMDR + resistance against FQsPreferred8SL-inj, Pto/Eto, Cs/Trd, Lzd, Cfz, E, Z
12Pto/Eto, Cs/Trd, Lzd, Cfz, E, Z
Alternative8SL-inj, PAS, Cs/Trd, Lzd, Cfz, E, Z
12PAS, Cs/Trd, Lzd, Cfz, E, Z
XDRMDR + resistance against SL-inj + FQsPreferred20Pto/Eto, Cs/Trd, Lzd, Cfz, Amx-Clav, Mero, E, Z
Alternative20PAS, Cs/Trd, Lzd, Cfz, Amx-Clv, Mero, E, Z
  • MDR: multidrug-resistant; pre-XDRinj: MDR tuberculosis with additional resistance to second-line injectable; pre-XDRfq: MDR tuberculosis with aditional resistance to fluoroquinolone; H: isoniazid; R: rifampicin; Z: pyrazinamide; E: ethambutol; SL-inj: second-line injectable; FQ: fluoroquinolone; Pto/Eto: prothionamide/ethionamide; Cs/Trd: cycloserine/terizidone; PAS: para-aminosalicylic acid; Lzd: linezolid; Cfz: clofazimine; Amx–Clav: amoxicillin–clavulanic acid; Mero: meropenem.