TABLE 5 Cox proportional hazards models for all-cause mortality among the 291 subjects with airflow limitation (AL) at baseline#
Model 1Model 2+
Sex
 Male11
 Female0.73 (0.54–0.99)*0.81 (0.60–1.10)
Age at baseline years1.10 (1.08–1.11)***1.10 (1.08–1.11)***
BMI
 Normal 18.5–25 kg·m−211
 Underweight <18.5 kg·m−22.48 (1.29–4.74)*2.46 (1.30–4.65)*
 Overweight 25–30 kg·m−20.73 (0.53–1.00)*0.80 (0.60–1.09)
 Obese ⩾30 kg·m−20.96 (0.50–1.83)0.93 (0.47–1.84)
Education for >12 years0.70 (0.53–0.92)*0.71 (0.53–0.94)*
Smoking status
 Never-smoker11
 Former smoker1.10 (0.70–1.71)1.15 (0.73–1.83)
 Current smoker1.22 (0.77–1.94)1.36 (0.85–2.20)
Pack-years1.01 (1.00–1.02)*1.01 (1.00–1.02)*
AL/asthma groups
 AL+/asthma−11
 AL+/asthma+1.64 (1.18–2.29)*1.30 (0.91–1.84)
FEV1 % predicted at baseline0.98 (0.97–0.99)***
  • Data are presented as hazard ratio (95% confidence interval). BMI: body mass index; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s. #: defined as FEV1/forced vital capacity less than the lower limit of normal; : included sex, age, BMI, education, smoking status, pack-years and asthma; +: further adjusted for FEV1% predicted. *: p<0.05; ***: p<0.001.