TABLE 4 Associations between total maternal vitamin E intake during pregnancy and wheezing and asthma outcomes in 10-year-old children
Quintiles of energy adjusted maternal vitamin E intakeptrend
QuintilesQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Intake mg·day−12.61–6.226.22–7.087.08–7.907.91–9.169.18–29.7
Postal questionnaire#
 Ever wheezed10.68 (0.40–1.15)0.74 (0.44–1.23)0.82 (0.49–1.37)0.68 (0.41–1.14)0.329
 Wheeze in past year10.69 (0.35–1.37)0.80 (0.88–1.68)0.88 (0.46–1.58)0.99 (0.85–1.14)0.861
 Wheezed in absence of a cold in past year10.63 (0.25–1.56)1.23 (0.56–2.73)1.04 (0.46–2.35)1.18 (0.54–2.58)0.371
 Doctor confirmed asthma10.80 (0.43–1.51)0.99 (0.54–1.81)0.75 (0.39–1.42)1.07 (0.58–1.96)0.881
 Asthma and wheeze in past year10.73 (0.31–1.70)1.21 (0.56–2.59)0.78 (0.33–1.81)1.13 (0.52–2.46)0.685
 Asthma medication in past year10.86 (0.43–1.73)1.13 (0.58–2.15)0.71 (0.34–1.47)1.34 (0.70–2.58)0.495
Augmented follow-up
 Asthma medication in past year10.97 (0.56–1.69)1.01 (0.58–1.74)0.89 (0.51–1.57)1.29 (0.76–2.18)0.444
Longitudinal+
 Wheeze in past year§10.66 (0.49–0.91)0.70 (0.51–0.97)0.59 (0.49–0.94)0.68 (0.42–0.83)0.015
 Doctor confirmed asthmaƒ10.73 (0.48–1.10)0.65 (0.43–0.99)0.63 (0.41–0.97)0.63 (0.41–0.98)0.027
 Asthma and wheeze in past year§10.53 (0.34–0.83)0.63 (0.40–0.99)0.58 (0.36–0.94)0.54 (0.34–0.84)0.022
  • Data are presented as adjusted odds ratio (95% CI), unless otherwise stated. Odds ratios were adjusted for maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal atopy, birth order, child’s sex, maternal age at recruitment, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, birth weight, birth crown-heel length, birth head circumference and maternal vitamin D intake. #: n=934; : n=1748; +: 1, 2, 5 and 10 year data; §: generalised estimating equations; ƒ: discrete hazards modelling, hazard ratio.