TABLE 3 Associations between total maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy and wheezing and asthma outcomes in 10-year-old children
Quintiles of energy adjusted maternal vitamin D intakeptrend
QuintileQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Intake μg·day−10.74–2.322.32–2.902.90–3.513.51–4.684.69–35.0
Postal questionnaire#
 Ever wheezed10.98 (0.60–1.61)0.74 (0.44–1.23)0.58 (0.34–0.99)0.51 (0.30–0.87)0.002
 Wheeze in past year11.76 (0.94–3.30)1.12 (0.58–2.18)0.68 (0.33–1.41)0.59 (0.28–1.24)0.009
 Wheezed in absence of a cold in past year11.27 (0.62–2.60)0.58 (0.25–1.33)0.60 (0.26–1.35)0.63 (0.28–1.41)0.056
 Doctor confirmed asthma10.82 (0.46–1.46)0.59 (0.32–1.08)0.52 (0.28–0.98)0.60 (0.32–1.11)0.033
 Asthma and wheeze in past year11.33 (0.65–2.71)0.74 (0.34–1.61)0.64 (0.28–1.44)0.63 (0.28–1.44)0.092
 Medication to treat asthma in past year11.08 (0.57–2.04)0.76 (0.39–1.48)0.67 (0.34–1.34)0.74 (0.37–1.46)0.158
Augmented follow-up
 Dispensed asthma medication in past year10.97 (0.58–1.64)0.83 (0.48–1.42)0.55 (0.30–1.00)0.76 (0.43–1.34)0.092
Longitudinal+
 Wheeze in past year§11.06 (0.77–1.47)0.95 (0.68–1.34)0.73 (0.52–1.03)0.66 (0.47–0.94)0.002
 Doctor confirmed asthmaƒ10.87 (0.58–1.30)0.85 (0.56–1.28)0.63 (0.40–0.98)0.71 (0.45–1.11)0.046
 Asthma and wheeze in past year§11.15 (0.74–1.78)1.02 (0.64–1.62)0.62 (0.37–1.02)0.63 (0.38–1.07)0.007
  • Data are present as adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI), unless otherwise stated. Odds ratios were adjusted for maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal atopy, birth order, child’s sex, maternal age at recruitment, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, birth weight, birth crown-heel length, birth head circumference and maternal vitamin E intake. #: n=934; : n=1748; +: 1, 2, 5 and 10 year data; §: generalised estimating equations; ƒ: discrete hazards modelling, hazard ratio.