Table 1– Baseline cross-sectional characteristics and longitudinal changes in patients defined by peripheral blood eosinophil counts during follow-up
Persistently ≥2%IntermittentPersistently <2%ANOVA p-value
Subjects n554728201
Age years64±762±762±70.025
Male sex6864560.007
Smoking history pack-years47±2647±2648±300.810
Current smokers3036420.004
Post-bronchodilator FEV1 L1.45±0.511.37±0.521.33±0.510.003
Post-bronchodilator FVC L3.20±0.843.05±0.913.01±0.960.005
FEV1 % predicted51±1549±1648±150.009
Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC %46±1245±1145±110.445
BMI kg·m−227±527±626±60.190
Fat free mass index kg·m−253±1252±1350±130.009
6MWD m395±116385±115377±1270.142
Emphysema by CT (LAA%)17±1217±1218±120.486
Oxygen saturation %94.9±3.194.9±2.594.7±2.50.676
SGRQ total Score44±1847±1849±190.002
FACIT fatigue score37±1036±1036±100.106
mMRC score1.4±1.01.6±1.01.7±1.10.006
BODE index2.6±1.92.9±2.03.2±2.20.001
WBCs ×109 L−17.5±2.07.9±2.18.1±2.2<0.001
Exacerbation rate#0.75±1.180.86±1.230.85±1.090.232
COPD hospitalisation rate0.13±0.470.18±0.530.18±0.570.245
Cardiovascular disease3033320.679
History of osteoporosis1411110.428
Statin use3428270.094
Inhaled corticosteroid use8992920.362
Oral corticosteroid use010n/a
IL-6 pg·mL−11.9 (0.4–4.2)1.9 (0.4–4.0)2.2 (0.6–5.1)0.476
IL-8 pg·mL−16.2 (2.8–11.2)7.0 (3.5–12.4)8.3 (4.2–14.9)0.004
Fibrinogen mg·dL−1443 (384–511)442 (387–507)443 (393–510)0.951
Club cell protein 16 ng·mL−15.4 (3.8–7.3)4.7 (3.4–6.5)4.7 (3.1–6.4)<0.001
SP-D ng·mL−1123 (8–168)115 (84–162)122 (87–174)0.224
CRP mg·L−13.0 (1.5–6.1)3.2 (1.7–7.3)3.5 (1.6–7.0)0.147
CCL-18 ng·mL−1112 (87–140)102 (79–132)101 (81–123)<0.001
Longitudinal Changes
 FEV1 decline mL·year−131±4835±4430±420.209
 COPD exacerbations PPPY+1.06±1.181.15±1.271.07±1.310.277
 COPD hospitalisations PPPY+0.16±0.380.22±0.490.23±0.450.283
 6MWD change over 3 years m-15±90-20±103-20±870.626
 Emphysema by CT (LAA%) change§1.3±4.51.8±4.92.7±5.00.010
 SGRQ total score change+0.2±12.51.6±12.8-1.6±14.30.007
  • Date are presented as mean±sd, % or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; BMI: body mass index; 6MWD: 6-min walking distance; CT: computed tomography; LAA%: % low-attenuation areas; SGRQ: St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; FACIT: Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council; BODE: BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity; WBCs: white blood cells; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GORD: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; IL: interleukin; SP-D: surfactant protein D; CRP: C-reactive protein; CCL-18: chemokine ligand 18; PPPY: per person per year; n/a: not applicable. #: in the year prior to entry; : in the prior year; +: over 3 years; §: change in LAA% reflects year 3 value minus baseline value.