Table 2– Baseline, and change at 6 weeks and 6 months for all outcomes
SPACEUsual careBetween-group difference in change at 6 weeksBetween-group difference in change at 6 months
BaselineChange at 6 weeksChange at 6 monthsBaselineChange at 6 weeksChange at 6 months
CRQ-SR score
 Dyspnoea3.31±1.070.71 (0.45–1.00)0.66 (0.39–0.93)2.95±1.170.42 (0.20–0.65)0.49 (0.18–0.78)0.29 (−0.12–0.56) (p = 0.049)0.17 (−0.29–0.52) (p = 0.17)
 Fatigue3.93±1.230.49 (0.24–0.66)0.19 (−0.08–0.47)3.80±1.320.01 (−0.21–0.22)−0.10 (−0.28–0.08)0.48 (0.08–0.66) (p = 0.013)0.29 (−0.12–0.53) (p = 0.06)
 Emotion4.86±1.270.34 (0.11–0.57)0.16 (−0.14–0.46)4.83±1.22−0.07 (−0.27–0.11)−0.19 (−0.39–0.01)0.41 (0.08–0.62) (p = 0.011)0.35 (−0.08–0.6) (p = 0.09)
 Mastery5.25±1.320.15 (−0.06–0.37)0.04 (−0.22–0.30)5.14±1.40−0.11 (−0.35–0.13)−0.23 (−0.47–0.20)0.26 (−0.05–0.54) (p = 0.10)0.27 (−0.14–0.56) (p = 0.09)
ISWT m343.0±150.09.4 (−5.0–24.0)10.2 (−7.1–27.5)353.0±161.8−6.7 (−17.9–4.5)−5.7 (−17.5–6.0)16.1 (−1.7–34.0) (p = 0.017)15.9 (−4.8–36.7) (p = 0.50)
ESWT s260.3±179.4209.7 (122.3–297.1)233.5 (136.0–331.0)262.8±166.692.1 (32.8–151.4)49.9 (−4.5–104.4)117.6 (16.8–218.5) (p = 0.006)183.6 (72.8–294.4) (p = 0.003)
HADS score
 Anxiety5.98±3.94−0.73 (−1.28– −1.17)−0.31 (−1.06–0.45)6.91±4.060.12 (−0.38–0.62)0.09 (−0.45–0.63)−0.85 (−1.58– −1.00) (p = 0.04)−0.40 (−1.30–0.50) (p = 0.04)
 Depression5.32±3.22−0.50 (−1.03–0.03)−0.19 (−0.87–0.49)5.06±3.100.22 (−0.30–0.75)0.47 (−0.02–0.95)−0.72 (−1.47–0.03) (p = 0.10)−0.66 (−1.47–0.15) (p = 0.27)
 Anxiety among those with baseline ≥8#10.50±2.11−1.00 (−2.30–0.30)−1.14 (−2.47–0.19)10.67±2.47−0.39 (−1.07–0.29)−0.52 (−1.31–0.28)−0.61 (−1.91–0.70) (p = 0.35)−0.62 (−2.04–0.80) (p = 0.38)
 Depression among those with baseline ≥89.44±1.38−0.89 (−2.25–0.47)−1.44 (−2.65– −0.23)9.94±1.77−0.69 (−2.39–1.01)0.31 (−1.25–1.88)−0.20 (−2.28–1.87) (p = 0.84)−1.76 (−3.63–0.12) (p = 0.06)
BCKQ score34.41±7.602.79 (0.97–4.60)3.21 (1.24–5.19)32.99±9.370.44 (−1.02–1.90)0.88 (−0.68–2.45)2.35 (0.07–4.62) (p = 0.04)2.33 (−0.12–4.78) (p = 0.04)
PRAISE score46.00±7.030.90 (−0.34–2.15)1.26 (−0.12–2.65)45.17±8.15−1.08 (−2.67–0.51)−0.21 (−1.78–1.36)1.98 (−0.09–4.05) (p = 0.32)1.47 (−0.65–3.60) (p = 0.21)
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or mean (95% CI), unless otherwise stated. SPACE: Self-Management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education; CRQ-SR: self-reported Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire; ISWT: incremental shuttle walk test; ESWT: endurance shuttle walking test; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; BCKQ: Bristol COPD Knowledge Questionnaire; PRAISE: Pulmonary Rehabilitation Index of Self-Efficacy. #: n = 55; : n = 34.