Table 1– Participant characteristics
VariableWalking groupControl group
Participants9548
Age years69±868±9
Male/female56/3928/20
Height m1.67±0.101.68±0.11
Weight kg71±1578±19
BMI kg·m−225±527±6
Current smokers1510
Pulmonary function
 FEV1 L1.13±0.421.19±0.47
 FEV1 % predicted43±1543±15
 FVC L2.71±0.842.76±0.83
 FVC % predicted76±1775±18
 FEV1/FVC0.43±0.140.43±0.12
 TLC % predicted114±32109±18
 FRC % predicted153±60139±37
 RV % predicted162±82)147±51
 RV/TLC ratio0.54±0.090.52±0.11
DLCO % predicted44±1743±15
GOLD grade
 II40 (42)22 (46)
 III42 (44)21 (44)
 IV13 (14)5 (10)
  • Data are presented as n, mean±sd or n (%). BMI: body mass index; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; TLC: total lung capacity; FRC: functional residual capacity; RV: residual volume; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.