Table 4– Absolute and relative contraindications for field walking tests
Acute myocardial infarction (3–5 days)
Unstable angina
Uncontrolled arrhythmias causing symptoms or haemodynamic compromise
Active endocarditis
Acute myocarditis or pericarditis
Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis
Uncontrolled heart failure
Acute pulmonary embolus or pulmonary infarction
Thrombosis of lower extremities
Suspected dissecting aneurysm
Uncontrolled asthma
Pulmonary oedema
Room air SpO2 at rest ≤85%#
Acute respiratory failure
Acute noncardiopulmonary disorder that may affect exercise performance or be aggravated by exercise (i.e. infection, renal failure, thyrotoxicosis)
Mental impairment leading to inability to cooperate
Left main coronary stenosis or its equivalent
Moderate stenotic valvular heart disease
Severe untreated arterial hypertension at rest (200 mmHg systolic, 120 mmHg diastolic)
Tachyarrhythmias or bradyarrhythmias
High-degree atrioventricular block
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Significant pulmonary hypertension
Advanced or complicated pregnancy
Electrolyte abnormalities
Orthopaedic impairment that prevents walking
  • SpO2: arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry. #: exercise patient with supplemental oxygen. Reproduced from [108] with permission from the publisher.