Table 4– Adjusted association between all ESCAPE exposures to air pollution (including traffic indicators) and both the prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) all stages using the lower limit of normal
Exposure#Prevalence of COPD all stagesIncidence of COPD all stages
aOR (95% CI)I2p-value (het.)aOR+ (95% CI)I2p-value (het.)
NO21.07 (0.91–1.26)24.1p=0.2661.05 (0.89–1.23)0.0p=0.789
NOx1.07 (0.96–1.21)0.0p=0.8571.05 (0.89–1.23)0.0p=0.602
PM101.04 (0.71–1.53)0.0p=0.5881.10 (0.70–1.73)0.0p=0.855
PM2.50.95 (0.47–1.90)46.6p=0.1321.06 (0.73–1.53)0.0p=0.645
PM2.5(abs)1.02 (0.69–1.52)0.0p=0.3931.06 (0.67–1.67)0.0p=0.703
PMcoarse0.84 (0.33–2.10)7.0p=0.3580.18 (0.01–5.18)95.2p=0.000
Traffic intensity on nearest road1.19 (0.84–1.68)0.0p=0.9171.24 (0.78–1.96)0.0p=0.902
Traffic intensity on major road in a 100 m buffer1.13 (0.72–1.78)44.3p=0.1461.15 (0.77–1.73)39.5p=0.175
  • Results from the random effect meta-analysis from single pollutant models (adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals), and I2 (with p-value) test for heterogeneity of effect estimates between cohorts. NOx: nitrogen oxides; PM10: particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less; PM2.5: particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less; PM2.5(abs): absorbance of particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm; PMcoarse: coarse fraction of PM2.5 to PM10. #: associations are presented for the following increments in exposure: 10 μg·m−3 for NO2, 20 μg·m−3 for NOx, 1×10−5 m−1 for PM2.5 absorbance, 5 μg·m−3 for PM2.5, 10 μg·m−3 for PM10, 5 μg·m−3 for PMcoarse, 5000 vehicle·day−1·m for traffic intensity on the nearest street; and 4 000 000 vehicle·day−1·m for traffic load on major roads within a 100 m buffer. : adjusted for sex at baseline, smoking at follow-up, maximum educational level, age at follow-up, height at baseline, body mass index (BMI) at follow-up of all participants; associations with traffic intensity and traffic load were additionally adjusted for background NO2 concentrations. +: adjusted for sex at baseline, smoking at baseline, smoking cessation, maximum educational level, age at baseline, height at baseline, BMI at baseline, change in BMI of all participants; associations with traffic intensity and traffic load were additionally adjusted for background NO2 concentrations.