Table 2– Prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in all stages (1+) and in stage 2+ using the lower limit of normal at follow-up
AllFemalesMalesEver-smokerNever-smoker
ECRHS
 NO2 population31941613158118041390
  Prevalence
   All stages109 (3.41)54 (3.35)55 (3.48)69 (3.82)40 (2.88)
   Stage 2+39 (1.22)17 (1.05)22 (1.39)29 (1.61)10 (0.72)
  Incidence
   All stages41 (1.28)22 (1.36)19 (1.20)24 (1.33)17 (1.22)
   Stage 2+99 (0.28)5 (0.31)4 (0.25)4 (0.22)5 (0.36)
 PM population1583830753836747
  Prevalence
   All stages56 (0.95)29 (3.49)27 (3.59)33 (3.95)23 (3.08)
   Stage 2+15 (0.95)6 (0.72)9 (1.20)11 (1.32)4 (0.54 )
  Incidence
   All stages22 (1.39)13 (1.57)9 (1.20)12 (1.44)10 (1.34)
   Stage 2+5 (0.32)3 (0.36)2 (0.27)2 (0.24)3 (0.40)
NSHD
 NO2 population844471373574270
  Prevalence
   All stages29 (3.44)18 (3.82)11 (2.95)26 (4.53)3 (1.11)
   Stage 2+20 (2.37)15 (3.18)5 (1.34)18 (3.14)2 (0.74)
  Incidence
   All stages20 (2.37)12 (2.55)8 (2.14)17 (2.96)3 (1.11)
   Stage 2+14 (2.37)10 (2.12)4 (1.07)12 (2.09)2 (0.74)
 PM population751418333521230
  Prevalence
   All stages26 (3.46)15 (3.59)11 (3.30)23 (4.41)3 (1.30)
   Stage 2+18 (2.40)13 (3.11)5 (1.50)16 (3.07)2 (0.87)
  Incidence
   All stages19 (2.53)11 (2.63)8 (2.40)16 (3.07)3 (1.30)
   Stage 2+13 (1.73)9 (2.15)4 (1.20)11 (2.11)2 (0.87)
SALIA
 NO2 population580580121459
  Prevalence
   All stages25 (4.31)25 (4.31)9 (7.44)16 (3.49)
   Stage 2+17 (2.93)17 (2.93)7 (5.79)10 (2.18)
  Incidence
   All stages18 (3.10)18 (3.10)7 (5.79)11 (2.40)
   Stage 2+12 (2.07)12 (2.07)5 (4.13)7 (1.53)
 PM population580580121459
  Prevalence
   All stages25 (4.31)25 (4.31)9 (7.44)16 (3.49)
   Stage 2+17 (2.93)17 (2.93)7 (5.79)10 (2.18)
  Incidence
   All stages18 (3.10)18 (3.10)7 (5.79)11 (2.40)
   Stage 2+12 (2.07)12 (2.07)5 (4.13)7 (1.53)
SAPALDIA
 NO2 population1764980784998766
  Prevalence
   All stages189 (10.71)64 (6.53)125 (15.94)190 (19.04)86 (11.23)
   Stage 2+61 (3.46)44 (4.49)17 (2.17)61 (6.11))21 (2.74)
  Incidence
   All stages105 (2.04)47 (4.80)58 (7.40)118 (11.82)70 (9.14)
   Stage 2+36 (2.04)30 (3.06)6 (0.77)34 (3.41)14 (1.83)
 PM population729422307406323
  Prevalence
   All stages58 (7.96)22 (5.21)43 (14.01)62 (15.27)30 (9.29)
   Stage 2+26 (3.57)15 (3.55)12 (3.91)25 (6.16)9(2.79)
  Incidence
   All stages41(5.62)18 (4.27)34 (11.07)18 (4.43)27 (8.36)
   Stage 2+16 (2.19)11 (2.61)7 (2.28)51 (12.56)6 (1.86)
  • All four study populations are stratified by sex, and smoking status for population with NO2 and particulate matter (PM) measures, respectively. Data are presented as N or n (% of total N).