Table 4– Crude and adjusted associations between longitudinal changes in physical activity and all-cause mortality in subjects with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Physical activity levelCrude HR (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted HR (95% CI)#p-value
BaselineFollow-up
Subjects with COPD
Low (n = 235)Low (n = 95)11
Moderate (n = 99)0.798 (0.590–1.079)0.1420.835 (0.605–1.151)0.270
High (n = 41)0.853 (0.567–1.262)0.4251.012 (0.669–1.531)0.953
Moderate (n = 602)Low (n = 84)1.644 (1.271–2.126)<0.0011.729 (1.335–2.239)<0.001
Moderate (n = 351)11
High (n = 167)1.183 (0.962–1.455)0.1121.174 (0.952–1.447)0.134
High (n = 329)Low (n = 34)3.307 (2.202–4.966)<0.0012.351 (1.516–3.646)<0.001
Moderate (n = 148)1.253 (0.957–1.639)0.1011.048 (0.790–1.390)0.746
High (n = 147)11
Subjects without COPD
Low (n = 1116)Low (n = 390)11
Moderate (n = 512)0.745 (0.636–0.874)<0.0010.707 (0.592–0.844)<0.001
High (n = 214)0.777 (0.637–0.949)0.0130.747 (0.599–0.931)0.009
Moderate (n = 4007)Low (n = 520)1.518 (1.355–1.700)<0.0011.224 (1.091–1.373)0.001
Moderate (n = 2342)11
High (n = 520)1.120 (1.024–1.225)0.0130.961 (0.878–1.053)0.727
High (n = 2020)Low (n = 148)1.642 (1.302–2.070)<0.0011.256 (1.000–1.590)0.050
Moderate (n = 742)1.071 (0.932–1.230)0.3311.007 (0.876–1.159)0.919
High (n = 1130)11
  • HR: hazard ratio. #: multivariate model adjusted for sex, age and confounders of the association between physical activity and all-cause mortality, including self-reported comorbidities, smoking, smoking years, education, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and body mass index. The complete models with all covariates are included in tables E8 and E9.