Table 2– Change in biomarkers associated with long-term air pollution exposure levels
BiomarkerNO2PM2.5
CRP-1.6 (-18.9–19.5)-4.6 (-20.0–13.6)
TNF-α7.8 (-14.2–35.5)0.0 (-18.6–23.0)
IL-66.6 (-10.6–27)9.5 (-6.5–28.3)
IL-87.8 (0.5–15.6)*3.2 (-3.2–10.0)
Fibrinogen0.9 (-2.8–4.8)-0.6 (-4.0–2.9)
HGF0.2 (-4.8–5.4)1.4 (-3.2–6.2)
  • Data are presented as percentage change (95% CI). Changes shown are associated with one interquartile range increase in mean exposure levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5) during the year prior to the sampling date. Data are adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, education level and recruiting hospital. CRP: C-reactive protein; TNF: tumour necrosis factor; IL: interleukin; HGF: hepatocyte growth factor. *: p<0.05.