Table 1– Characteristics of participants
Study participants n242
Age years67.8±8.6
 Female13 (5.4)
 Male229 (94.6)
Education level
 None or primary school109 (45.0)
 Secondary school102 (42.2)
 University31 (12.8)
Marital status
Couple195 (80.6)
 Noncouple47 (19.4)
Body mass index kg·m−228.1±4.6
Post-bronchodilator FEV1 % predicted71.3±16.7
GOLD class
 I (mild)10 (4.1)
 II (moderate)111 (45.9)
 III (severe)98 (40.5)
 IV (very severe)23 (9.5)
Use of corticosteroid inhaler
 Yes94 (38.8)
 No148 (61.2)
Use of statins
 Yes40 (16.5)
 No202 (83.5)
Season of blood sampling
 Autumn/winter90 (37.2)
 Spring/summer152 (62.8)
Occupational exposure history
 Low78 (37.3)
 Medium71 (34.0)
 High60 (28.7)
Smoking status
 Former smoker152 (62.8)
 Current smoker90 (37.2)
Smoking duration years44.8±12.5
Smoking intensity pack-years0.4±0.7
Passive smoking h·week−12.6±4.7
Alcohol intake g·day−116.0±20.3
Physical activity#39.9±21.0
Cardiovascular comorbidities
 Myocardial infarction30 (12.4)
 Congestive heart failure15 (6.2)
 Peripheral vascular disease27 (11.2)
 Cerebrovascular disease12 (5.0)
CRP mg·L−18.9±18.5
TNF-α pg·mL−10.9±1.4
IL-6 pg·mL−11.4±1.3
IL-8 pg·mL−15.3±3.8
Fibrinogen g·L−14.2±1.2
HGF pg·mL−11041.0±491.6
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; CRP: C-reactive protein; TNF: tumour necrosis factor; IL: interleukin; HGF: hepatocyte growth factor. #: according to the Yale Physical Activity Survey [28].