Table 3– Risk factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR)/extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB)
Risk factorDefinitionFirst author [ref.]OR# (95% CI)Remarks
Prior treatment (>1 month)Any prior treatmentFaustini [33]10.2 (7.6–13.7)23 studies; I2: 80.9%
Any prior treatmentSkrahina [3]6.0 (3.1–11.4)
Any prior treatmentLiang [34]5.5 (4.0–7.4)
Any prior treatmentShen [35]4.1 (3.2–5.2)
Prior second-line injectableDalton [36]4.8 (3.1–7.4)XDR in MDR patients
Prior fluoroquinoloneDalton [36]4.2 (2.7–6.5)XDR in MDR patients
Prior second-line injectableShin [37]4.0 (2.0–8.0)XDR in MDR patients
TB contactMDR, household contactBrewer [38]4.7 (1.6–13.9)In new patients
General household contactBrewer [38]1.7 (0.8–3.3)In new patients
Living with a non-MDR contactOtero [39]1.1 (0.6–2.1)In new patients
General contactBalabanova [40]1.8 (1.4–2.4)MDR
General contactBalabanova [40]2.2 (0.8–5.8)XDR in MDR patients
HIVFaustini [33]3.5 (2.5–5.0)8 studies; I2: 45.4%
Shin [37]3.1 (0.4–22.7)XDR in MDR patients
Dalton [36]0.9 (0.5–1.5)XDR in MDR patients
Foreign birth/migrantFaustini [33]2.5 (1.9–3.2)8 studies; I2: 27.8%
Shen [35]1.4 (1.1–1.8)
Skrahina [4]0.6 (0.2–2.1)
Delayed treatment>60 days after start symptomsLiang [34]1.4 (1.0–1.9)
Young age<35 yearsSkrahina [3]2.0 (1.3–3.1)
<35 yearsOtero [39]1.4 (0.62–3.1)In new patients
<40 yearsZhao [41]2.0 (1.5–2.8)In retreatment patients
<40 yearsZhao [41]0.8 (0.6–1.0)In new patients
<40 yearsBalabanova [40]1.4 (1.2–1.6)MDR
<40 yearsBalabanova [40]0.9 (0.5–2.0)XDR in MDR patients
<45 yearsShen [35]1.9 (1.3–2.0)
<45 yearsLiang [34]1.8 (1.3–2.4)
Female sexZhao [41]1.9 (1.3–2.7)In retreatment patients
Zhao [41]1.7 (1.2–2.3)In new patients
Otero [39]1.1 (0.6–2.1)In new patients
Liang [34]0.9 (0.7–1.3)
Shen [35]0.9 (0.7–1.3)
Skrahina [4]0.9 (0.5–1.6)
Faustini [33]0.7 (0.6–0.9)11 studies; I2: 20.4%
(Previous) imprisonmentAny historySkrahina [4]0.9 (0.5–1.9)
Any historyDalton [36]1.2 (0.9–2.4)XDR in MDR patients
Within 3 years of enrolmentBrewer [38]0.2 (0.0–1.5)
  • I2: inconsistency. #: unless otherwise stated; : hazard ratio.