Table 3– Associations of processed meat, fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio among females in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, UK
Variable#Subjects nFEV1 LFVC LFEV1/FVC ratio
Mean±sdRegression coefficient (95% CI)p-value for trend+Mean±sdRegression coefficient (95% CI)p-value for trend+Mean±sdRegression coefficient (95% CI)p-value for trend+
Processed meat servings per week
 Q1 <2.14382.06±0.41Reference2.79±0.51Reference0.737±0.081Reference
 Q2 2.1–3.13131.99±0.40-0.04 (-0.09–0.02)2.72±0.51-0.02 (-0.09–0.04)0.733±0.075-0.007 (-0.018–0.004)
 Q3 3.2–4.32391.93±0.43-0.07 (-0.13– -0.01)2.64±0.51-0.07 (-0.14– -0.01)0.730±0.073-0.010 (-0.022–0.002)
 Q4 4.4–6.12421.91±0.39-0.10 (-0.15– -0.04)2.64±0.47-0.10 (-0.17– -0.04)0.725±0.078-0.009 (-0.021–0.002)
 Q5 ≥6.21591.92±0.42-0.05 (-0.12–0.01)2.64±0.47-0.04 (-0.12–0.04)0.724±0.087-0.012 (-0.026–0.002)
 Effect per fifth  increase-0.02 (-0.04– -0.01)0.005-0.02 (-0.04– -0.00)0.031-0.003 (-0.006–0.000)0.041
Fruit and vegetables servings per week
 Q1 <30.72231.89±0.44Reference2.61±0.52Reference0.724±0.094Reference
 Q2 30.7–40.42561.93±0.420.03 (-0.04–0.09)2.65±0.500.01 (-0.06–0.09)0.726±0.0780.007 (-0.006–0.021)
 Q3 40.5–49.33001.97±0.390.04 (-0.03–0.10)2.67±0.470.00 (-0.07–0.07)0.736±0.0730.013 (0.000–0.026)
 Q4 49.4–62.22962.01±0.380.07 (0.00–0.13)2.73±0.480.05 (-0.02–0.13)0.735±0.0730.011 (-0.002–0.025)
 Q5 ≥62.33162.07±0.410.10 (0.03–0.16)2.83±0.520.10 (0.03–0.17)0.733±0.0770.010 (-0.003–0.024)
 Effect per fifth  increase0.02 (0.01–0.04)0.0010.03 (0.01–0.04)<0.0010.002 (-0.001–0.005)0.637
Dietary TAC μmol·day−1
 Q1 <11 7953181.92±0.42Reference2.61±0.49Reference0.732±0.088Reference
 Q2 11 795–14 5463131.94±0.420.02 (-0.04–0.08)2.66±0.500.02 (-0.05–0.09)0.725±0.0790.001 (-0.012–0.014)
 Q3 14 547–17 2092982.00±0.390.05 (-0.02–0.11)2.70±0.450.03 (-0.04–0.10)0.738±0.0730.009 (-0.003–0.022)
 Q4 17 210–20 5502992.02±0.400.06 (-0.01–0.12)2.74±0.510.05 (-0.03–0.12)0.737±0.0700.010 (-0.003–0.023)
 Q5 ≥20 5513232.03±0.420.07 (0.00–0.14)2.81±0.520.10 (0.02–0.18)0.724±0.0830.002 (-0.012–0.016)
 Effect per fifth  increase0.02 (0.00–0.03)0.0030.02 (0.00–0.04)0.0010.001 (-0.002–0.005)0.646
  • #: cut-off values for quintile (Q) of dietary consumption were derived from distributions among the whole population; : adjusted for age, height, smoking status, pack-years, exposure to tobacco smoke in the home, age left education, social class, body fat mass, physical activity score, dietary supplement use, inhaled or oral steroid use, paracetamol use, alcohol consumption and energy intake; +: p-values to test for linear trends were calculated using dietary consumption as a continuous variable after controlling for potential confounders.