Table 1– Subject characteristics of males and females who participated in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, UK
MalesFemales
Subjects15511391
Age years65.7±2.966.6±2.7
Height cm174.2±6.4160.9±5.9
Fat mass kg23.3 (19.0–28.4)28.2 (23.2–33.8)
Habitual activity score61.0±15.359.1±15.7
Smoking status
 Never-smoker507 (32.7)854 (61.4)
 Ex-smoker806 (52.0)402 (28.9)
 Current smoker238 (15.3)134 (9.6)
Smoking pack-years23 (11–40)15 (5–29)
Exposure to tobacco smoke in the home203 (13.5)163 (11.9)
Age left full-time education years
 ≤14302 (19.5)241 (17.3)
 ≥151249 (80.5)1150 (82.7)
Social class
 I, II and IIINM611 (40.6)583 (41.9)
 IIIM, IV and V893 (59.4)807 (58.1)
Oral or inhaled steroids107 (6.9)127 (9.1)
Paracetamol105 (6.8)178 (12.8)
Dietary supplements712 (45.9)824 (59.2)
Alcohol consumption units per week8.9 (2.3–19.5)1.5 (0.0–5.5)
Dietary intake
 Processed meat servings per week4.0 (2.5–6.2)3.0 (1.9–4.5)
 Fruit and vegetables servings per week42.6 (31.1–56.3)47.1 (35.5–60.4)
 TAC μmol·day−115 915 (12 425–19 640)15 915 (12 641–19 387)
 Total energy intake kcal·day−12433 (2093–2796)1973 (1705–2272)
Lung function
 Maximum FEV1 L2.84±0.601.98±0.41
 Maximum FVC L4.04±0.742.71±0.50
 FEV1/FVC0.702±0.0890.732±0.079
 GLI 2012 FEV1 z-score#-0.74±0.03-0.77±0.03
 GLI 2012 FVC z-score#-0.28±0.03-0.42±0.03
 GLI 2012 FEV1/FVC z-score#-0.81±0.03-0.68±0.03
 Prevalence of COPD274 (17.7)185 (13.3)
  • Data are presented as n, mean±sd, median (interquartile range) or n (%). I: professional; II: managerial and technical; IIINM: skilled nonmanual; IIIM: skilled manual; IV: partly skilled manual; V: unskilled manual; TAC: total antioxidant capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; GLI: Global Lungs Initiative; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. #: calculated using the GLI 2012 regression equations (which are based on lung function data from lifelong nonsmokers) [26].