Table 5– Responsiveness of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory markers
First author [ref.]Aliquot fraction analysedSubjects nAgeInterventionResultsStatistical test Presentation of data
PMN cell countsPMN cell %NEIL-6IL-8
Response to treatment with antibiotics
 Armstrong [26]F1322.1 (14–44) monthsEradication of infection
Follow-up BAL at 6–18 months
Decreased
T1 56.6%
T2 21.2%
Decreased
T1 13.6 μg·mL−1
T2 8.5 μg·mL−1
Decreased
T1 1782 pg·mL−1
T2 307 pg·mL−1
Mean
 Noah [18]Not specified1514–133 monthsTIS (inhaled 300 mg twice daily, 28 days) (n=6) versus ceftazidime and tobramycin (i.v., 14 days) (n=9)
Follow-up BAL at 4–6 weeks
p=0.02
Inhaled +0.9 (0.6–5.4)
Systemic -0.26 (0.03–2.26)
ns
Inhaled +5.4 (-11–15.3)
Systemic -7.0 (-34.5–19.1)
nsnsMann–Whitney U-test
Median (range) ratio post versus pre
 Gibson [17]Not specified216 months–6 yearsTIS (inhaled, 28 days) versus placebo
Follow-up BAL at day 28
nsnsnsNot reported
 Gibson [16]Not specified96 months–6 yearsTIS (28 days)
Follow-up BAL at day 56
nsnsnsnsOne-sample t-test
 Gibson [16]Not specified96 months–6 yearsTIS (28 days)
Follow-up BAL at day 84
nsp=0.01
T1 60.5 (29.4)
T2 38.8 (18.2)
nsnsOne-sample t-test
 Gibson [16]Not specified126 months–6 yearsTIS (56 days)
Follow-up BAL at day 112
nsp=0.01
T1 53.4 (13.5)
T2 35.4 (20.3)
nsnsOne-sample t-test
 Gibson [16]Not specified86 months–6 yearsTIS (28 days)
Follow-up BAL at day 112
nsnsnsnsOne-sample t-test
 Meyer [61]P1117–40 yearsi.v. antibiotics for respiratory exacerbation
BAL start and end of 2 weeks admission
nsp=0.017Not reported
Acquisition of infection
 Armstrong [26]F820 (13–50) monthsNo infection in first BAL (T1) but present in second
Follow-up BAL at 6–18 months (T2)
Increased
T1 9.7%
T2 55%
Increased
T1 3.3 μg·mL−1
T2 10.3 μg·mL−1
Increased
T1 88 pg·mL−1
T2 1206 pg·mL−1
Mean
 Armstrong [13]F927±12 monthsNo infection in first BAL, but present in second
Follow-up BAL at 6–18 months
nsp<0.05
Fold change 2.0 (95% CI 1.2–3.2)
p<0.05
Fold change 2.3 (95% CI -1.06–5.2)
ANCOVA
DNase
 Ratjen [21]F, P (2 and 3)29
Treated group
5–25 yearsTreated group (DNase inhaled 2.5 mg once daily, 18 months) versus untreated group (no DNase)
Follow-up BAL at 18 months
nsUnpaired t-test
19
Untreated group
5–25 years
 Paul [19]F, P (2 and 3)46
Treated group
11.3±5.1 yearsTreated group (DNase inhaled, 36 months) versus untreated group (no DNase)
Follow-up BAL at 18 and 36 months
Increase more pronounced in untreated group (p<0.005) than the treated group (p<0.01)Increased in untreated group (p<0.007) but remained stable in treated groupIncreased in untreated group (p<0.02) but remained stable in treated groupNonparametric repeated measures analyses of variance
39
Untreated group
12.2±4.4 years
 Ratjen [20]F, P (2 and 3)13
Treated group
6–18 yearsTreated group (DNase inhaled 2.5 mg once daily, 18 months) versus untreated group (no DNase)
Follow-up BAL at 18 months
Decreased in treated group
-15 (-40–58)
Increased in untreated group
20 (-49–48)
ns between groups
Median (range)
Mann–Whitney U-test
10
Untreated group
6–18 years
rSLPI
 McGarvey [6]P1627±2 yearsrSLPI (nebuliser 100 mg, twice daily, 1 week)
Follow-up BAL 12 after the last aerosol
p<0.03
Average decrease 68%
Not reported
  • All samples are BAL unless stated. PMN: polymorphonuclear; NE: neutrophil elastase; IL: interleukin; F: first; NS: not specified; P: pooled; T1: first paired (range: 6–18 months) BAL sample; T2: second paired (range: 6–18 months) BAL sample; TIS: tobramycin inhalation solution; rSLPI: recombinant secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor.