Table 1– Clinimetric properties of biomarkers
DefinitionJustification of importance
ReliabilityDegree to which a measurement is consistent and free from errorImportant to quantify error (systematic and random) so that true changes can be discerned from changes due to normal fluctuations
ValidityThe gold standard outcome measures are often not feasible; therefore, it is important to know how an alternative outcome measure compares to the gold standard, and how different outcome measures compare It is important to know the ability of outcome measures to discriminate between different groups
 Concurrent validityDegree to which a test correlates with a “gold standard” criterion test which has been established as a valid test of the attribute of interest
 Convergent validityDegree to which a test correlates with another test which measures the same attribute
 Discriminate validityDegree to which a test differentiates between groups of individuals known to differ in the attribute of interest
 Predictive validityDegree to which an attribute can be predicted using the result of a predictor test/or degree to which prognosis can be predicted
ResponsivenessDegree to which a test changes in response to an intervention known to alter the attribute of interestImportant attribute of tests used in clinical practice or research to assess treatment benefit (e.g. to identify improvements in response to an intervention)
  • Reproduced from [1] with permission.