Table 4– Discriminate validity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory markers
First author [ref.]Aliquot fraction analysedSubjectsAgeParticipantsResultsStatistics
Khan [31]P160.08–0.97 yearsNeutrophil count
PMN cell count above controls (n=11)
PMN cell count overlapping controls (n=5)
Lower SpO2 in group with elevated PMN cell count
(mean±SEM 92.8±0.9 versus 96.6±0.7, p=0.0097) Weight-for-age ns
Respiratory rate ns
Wisconsin chest computed tomography score ns
Independent t-test
Sagel [57]P1116 months–6 yearsNeutrophil elastaseLower Shwachman scores in group with detectable free neutrophil elastase activity
(63.5±8.8 versus 69.7±5.5, p<0.0001)
Not reported
Hull [58]F32Presence of inflammation (PMN cell count and IL-8)
Inflammation (n=13)
No inflammation (n=19)
Higher lipid hydroperoxide concentration in group with detectable inflammation
(geometric mean 97.7 versus 21.9 μM, p<0.05)
Higher γ-GT in group with detectable inflammation
(geometric mean 104.2 versus 20.2 U·L−1, p<0.05)
Independent t-test
  • Data are presented as n, range or mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. Patients grouped by level of inflammation (from BAL biomarkers) differ in clinical presentation (including oxidative stress). P: pooled; F: first; PMN: polymorphonuclear; SpO2: arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry; ns: nonsignificant; IL: interleukin; γ-GT: gamma glutamyl transpeptidase.