Table 2– Discriminate validity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory markers between cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and non-CF subjects
First author [ref.]Aliquot fraction analysedCFNon-CFPMN cell counts ×10 3 cells·mL−1, unless otherwise statedPMN cells %Neutrophil elastaseIL-6 ×103·mL−1, unless otherwise statedIL-8 ×103·mL−1, unless otherwise statedStatistical testsData presentation
Subjects nAgeSubjects nAge
Armstrong [26]F50 infected19.1 (1.5–71) months1912.4±11.8 monthsCF 50 (39–65) versus non-CF 8.2 (4.6–15)***CF 80 (66–90) versus non-CF 32 (13–57)***CF 1153 (754–1762) versus non-CF 24 (12–47)***CF 50 (39–65) versus non-CF 8.2 (4.6–15)***Wald testGeometric mean (95% CI)
Armstrong [26]F28Infants (age not reported)10Infants (age not reported)CF 11 (8.7–13) versus non-CF 2.1 (0.95–4.7) μg·mL−1***Wald testGeometric mean (95% CI)
Muhlebach [38]Not specified1725±4 months2515±3 monthsCF 41.2±7.0 versus non-CF 21.8±5.2*CF 6868±2065 pg·mL−1 versus non-CF 1434±362 pg·mL−1¶CF 41.2±7.0 versus non-CF 21.8±5.2*Mann–Whitney U-testMean±sem
Armstrong [39]F5 virus infectedInfants
(age not reported)
13Infants
(age not reported)
CF 169 (16–1809) versus non-CF 7 (2–22)***CF 1372 (561–3358) versus non-CF 32 (12–84)***ANCOVAGeometric mean (95% CI)
Khan [31]P160.48 (0.08–0.97) years111.02 (0.25–2.7) yearsCF 673.6±367.9 versus non-CF 6.9±1.7+CF 1.18±0.46 μg·mL−1 versus non-CF 0 μg·mL−1§CF 1298±338 pg·mL−1 versus non-CF 92±25 pg·mL−1***Independent t-testMean±sem
Kirchner [40]P1610.5 (2–25) months9 (disease)11.7 (3–30) monthsKruskal–WallisValues not reported
Muhlebach [41]#,¶Not specified511.8 years (3 weeks–13 years)50 (disease)1.0 years (2 weeks–8.3 years)*******Independent t-testValues not reported
Muhlebach [42]#Not specified553.7 (0.1–13) years562.1 (0.04–9) years**Independent t-testValues not reported
Noah [43]P15 (infected)2.4 (0.1–13) years12 (uninfected)1.4 (0.1–8.8) yearsCF 3358 (100–11 520) versus non-CF 10 (1–117)*CF 84 (16–96) versus non-CF 5 (1–51)*CF 56 (17–681) versus non-CF 10 (2–59)*CF 11 614 (1424–71 100) versus non-CF 459 (21–2040)*Kruskal–WallisMedian (range)
Noah [43]P15 (infected)2.4 (0.1–13) years12 (infected)1.4 (0.1–8.8) yearsCF 3358 (100–11 520) versus non-CF 229 (1–2976)*CF 84 (16–96) versus non-CF 46 (1–93)*nsCF 11 614 (1424–71 100) versus non-CF 1860 (18–6224)*Kruskal–WallisMedian (range)
MacGregor [44]P396.4±0.7 years386.1±0.6 yearsnsCF 1308.1±56.4 versus non-CF 716±89.9***Mann–Whitney U-testMean±sem
Hilliard [45]P436.2 (0.3–16.8) years7 (PCD)9.2 (5.7–14.8) yearsnsnsnsNonparametric tests
Hilliard [45]P436.2 (0.3–16.8) years26 (CRD)4.8 (0.9–15.2) yearsCF 0.7 (0.02–23.97)×106·mL−1 versus non-CF 0 (0–17.91)×106·mL−1 ***CF 201 (100–5000) μm·mL−1 versus non-CF 100 (100–1297) μm·mL−1 ***CF 1340 (31–1760) pg·mL−1 versus 703 (31–1560) pg·mL−1 ***Nonparametric testsMedian (range)
Hilliard [45]P436.2 (0.3–16.8) years7 (disease control)5.8 (0.3–16.3) yearsCF 0.7 (0.02–23.97)×106·mL−1 versus non-CF 0 (0–0.01)×106·mL−1 ***CF 201 (100–5000) μm·mL−1 versus non-CF 100 (100–100) μm·mL−1 ***CF 1340 (31–1760) pg·mL−1 versus 64 (31–221) pg·mL−1**Nonparametric testsMedian (range)
Harris [46]F29 (during exacerbation)9.1±12 years126.0±1.4 yearsCF 6.1±0.12 log10 versus 4.9±0.17 log10***CF 68.8±3.6 versus 16.4±3.8***Wilcoxon rank sum testMean±sem
Dean [37]svBAL, F58 (4–18) years8 (asthma)Adults (age not reported)CF 6618 (1200–11 136) pM versus non-CF 302.4 (48–984) pM*Not reportedMean (range)
Dean [37]svBAL, F58 (4–18) years6 (PCD)Children (age not reported)CF 6618 (1200–11 136) pM versus non-CF 302.4 (48–984) pM*ƒNot reportedMean (range)
Reeves [47]Not specified15Children and adolescents128.21±1.22 yearsMann–Whitney U-testValues not reported
Ratjen [48]F1055–37 years483–15 yearsFirst aliquot
CF 52±30 versus non-CF 4±5##
Mann–Whitney U-testMean±sd
Ratjen [48]P (aliquots 2 and 3)1055–37 years483–15 yearsPooled CF 29±23 versus non-CF 2±3##¶Mann–Whitney U-testMean±sd
Reeves [49]F1819.6±5.2 years14 (other disease)50.14±10.5 yearsCF 325±81.96 pg·mg−1 versus 125.92±43.95 pg·mg−1 *Independent t-testMean±sem
McGarvey [6]F (cytology), P (remaining)1122.7±3.8 years9 (mild asthma)24.1±3.9 yearsnsnsANOVA
11 (healthy)24.3±2.8 years
Bonfield [33]P2220±2 years1329±6 yearsCF 41±10×106·mL−1 versus non-CF 0.09±0.02×106·mL−1 *CF 60±5 versus non-CF 1±0.3*CF 1.9±0.5 μM versus non-CF 0 μM*p=0.06
CF 287±104 versus non-CF 0
CF 32 565±9686 versus non-CF 0*Kruskal–WallisMean±sem
Konstan [50]P1820±1 years2325±1 yearsCF 38±14 (1–222)×106·mL−1 versus non-CF 0.1±0.04 (0–0.6)×106·mL−1 *Independent t-testMean±sem (range)
Meyer [35]P14 (exacerbation)17–40 years819–24 yearsCF 51.1±5.2 versus non-CF 0.3±0.4*CF 323±127 nM·min−1·mL−1 versus non-CF 0 nM·min−1·mL−1*Independent t-testMean±sem
Nakamura [51]Not specified828±2 years729±3 yearsCF 101±26 versus non-CF 0.4±0.3*CF 31±10 versus non-CF 0*CF 35±13 versus non-CF 0*Not reportedMean (range)
  • All four biomarkers are present at higher levels in patients with CF. All samples are BAL, unless otherwise stated. PMN: polymorphonuclear; IL: interleukin; F: first; P: pooled; svBAL: small volume BAL; ns: not significant; PCD: primary ciliary dyskinesia; CRD: chronic respiratory disease. #: [42] includes patients previously reported in [41]; *: p<0.05; **: p<0.01; ***: p<0.001; : p<0.005; +: p=0.002; §: p=0.03; ƒ: p=0.02; ##: p<0.0001.