Demographics

nBMIMRCFEV1R5inspX5insp
Healthy smokers
 non-EFL14926±40.2±0.430.4±0.7L0.28±0.07–0.09±0.03
 EFL1321.03.9L0.39–0.08
COPD GOLD 2
 non-EFL12526±51.3±1.01.8±0.5L0.39±0.12–0.15±0.06
 EFL1930±7*1.9±1.2*1.5±0.3L0.51±0.08–0.20±0.05
COPD GOLD 3
 non-EFL7624±51.5±0.91.2±0.3L0.41±0.10–0.20±0.07
 EFL2930±6*2.3±1.2*1.1±0.3L0.50±0.12–0.22±0.07
COPD GOLD 4
 non-EFL1522±52.6±1.50.8±0.2L0.42±0.10–0.22±0.10
 EFL1025±62.4±1.40.7±0.1L0.43±0.06–0.23±0.08
  • MRC: Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale; R5insp: Inspiratory resistance at 5Hz; X5insp: Inspiratory reactance at 5Hz; *p<0.05.