Table 2– Analysis of ciliated epithelial ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy
Ultrastructure parameterNonciliated cellsCiliated cells
ControlRSV-infectedControlRSV-infected
Proportion of this cell type68 (53.3–68.9)62.3 (54.2–65)31.7 (31.4–46.8)38.7 (35.6–44.1)
Dead cells3.1 (0.6–4.9)9.5 (9.1–11.9)*0 (0–0)2.4 (0–2.6)
Cells extruding from the surface38.1 (27.9–42.4)32.2 (20.3–41)23.4 (9.2–34)35.1 (25–39.6)
Cells with cytoplasmic blebbing23.9 (12–26.3)20.3 (17.5–27)12.9 (11.1–25)21.5 (18.6–29.3)
Mitochondrial damage18.5 (17–36.6)48.4 (11.6–56.4)16.1 (6.6–28.6)30.6 (20.7–44.7)*
Dynein arm defects4.7 (3.7–5.6)5.5 (4.2–8)
Microtubular defects3.9 (3.7–5.5)5.7 (3.3–7.5)
Loss of cilia39.6 (28.4–51.1)60.4 (35.7–79)**
  • Data are presented as median (interquartile range) of all cells examined. RSV: respiratory syncytial virus. For three paired individuals, p-values were significantly different from the control. *: p<0.05; **: p<0.01.