Table 6– Diseases which can masquerade as severe asthma
 Dysfunctional breathing/vocal cord dysfunction
 Recurrent (micro)aspiration, reflux, swallowing dysfunction
 Prematurity and related lung disease
 Cystic fibrosis
 Congenital or acquired immune deficiency
 Primary ciliary dyskinesia
 Central airways obstruction/compression
 Foreign body
 Congenital malformations including vascular ring
 Carcinoid or other tumour
 Mediastinal mass/enlarged lymph node
 Congenital heart disease
 Interstitial lung disease
 Connective tissue disease
 Dysfunctional breathlessness/vocal cord dysfunction
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
 Hyperventilation with panic attacks
 Bronchiolitis obliterans
 Congestive heart failure
 Adverse drug reaction (e.g. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors)
 Bronchiectasis/cystic fibrosis
 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
 Hypereosinophilic syndromes
 Pulmonary embolus
 Herpetic tracheobronchitis
 Endobronchial lesion/foreign body (e.g. amyloid, carcinoid, tracheal stricture)
 Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
 Acquired tracheobronchomalacia
 Churg–Strauss syndrome