Table 2– Association (odds ratios) of metabolic syndrome and its components with incident asthma
Metabolic componentsTotal nIncident asthma nModel 1# OR (95% CI)Model 2 OR (95% CI)Model 3+ OR (95% CI)
Waist circumference ≥88 cm in females, ≥102 cm in males31632051.85 (1.57–2.18)1.73 (1.46–2.04)1.62 (1.36–1.94)
Triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol·L−175733241.31 (1.13–1.52)1.22 (1.06–1.42)1.05 (0.90–1.24)
HDL cholesterol <1.3 mmol·L−1 in females, <1.0 mmol·L−1 in males49282471.38 (1.19–1.61)1.27 (1.09–1.48)1.15 (0.97–1.35)
Elevated blood pressure§ or use of anti-hypertensive medication11 4094401.12 (0.97–1.29)1.12 (0.97–1.29)1.03 (0.89–1.20)
Elevated glucoseƒ or diabetes599351.63 (1.15–2.32)1.55 (1.09–2.20)1.43 (1.01–2.04)
Metabolic syndrome## ≥3 components29711721.69 (1.42–2.01)1.57(1.31–1.87)NA
  • Total n = 23 191. HDL: high-density lipoprotein; NA: not applicable. #: adjusted for age, sex and family history of asthma. : adjusted for age, sex, family history of asthma, smoking, physical activity, education, social benefit and economic difficulties at baseline. +: adjusted for all covariates and other metabolic risk factors. §: systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg. ƒ: elevated glucose was ≥5.6 mmol·L−1 and ≥4 h since last meal. ##: metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement clinical criteria including alternate indicators anti-hypertensive medication and diabetes; glucose was nonfasting and ≥4 h since last meal.