Mortality | ||

Patients alive at 2 years | Patients dead at 2 years | |

Handgrip strength kg | 36.4±12.2 | 30.1±9.9 |

Association of handgrip strength with mortality | Unadjusted association (hazard ratio per 1 more kg) | 0.96 (95% CI 0.93–0.98), p=0.002; z= -3.06 |

Adjusted association (hazard ratio per 1 more kg) | 0.97 (95% CI 0.94–1.00), p=0.04; z= -2.05 | |

Adjusted association (hazard ratio per 5 more kg) | 0.84 (95% CI 0.72–1.00) p=0.04; z= -2.05 | |

Covariates | Age 1.09 (se 0.021, z=4.27, p<0.001); FEV_{1} 0.97 (se 0.010, z= -3.02, p=0.003); dyspnoea 1.29 (se 0.167, z=1.97, p=0.49); LABA/ICS 0.56 (SE 0.26, z= -1.22, p=0.22) | |

Exacerbations | ||

Patients with no exacerbation during 2 years of follow-up | Patients with ≥1 exacerbation during 2 years of follow-up | |

Handgrip strength kg | 19.4±8.5 | 18.1±8.1 |

Association of handgrip strength with exacerbations | Unadjusted association (incidence rate ratio per 1 more kg) | 0.99 (95% CI 0.98–1.00), p=0.06; z= -1.86 |

Adjusted association (incidence rate ratio per 1 more kg) | 0.99 (95% CI 0.98–1.00), p=0.14; z= -1.48 | |

Covariates | Age 0.99 (se 0.006, z=–0.79, p=0.43); FEV_{1} 0.98 (se 0.004, z= -5.63, p<0.001); dyspnoea 1.05 (se 0.055, z=0.99, p=0.32); LABA/ICS 1.56 (se 0.34, z= -2.02, p=0.044) | |

HRQoL from baseline to 2-year follow-up | ||

Association of handgrip strength with CRQ dyspnoea | Unadjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg | 0.03 (95% CI 0.02–0.04), p<0.0001; z=5.05 |

Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg | 0.03 (95% CI 0.02–0.04), p<0.0001; z=5.39 | |

Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 5 more kg | 0.14 (95% CI 0.09–0.20), p<0.0001; z=5.39 | |

Covariates | Age 0.008 (se 0.007, z=1.15, p=0.25); FEV_{1} 0.032 (se 0.004, z=8.20, p<0.001); LABA/ICS -0.47 (se 0.17, z= -2.78, p=0.005) | |

Association of handgrip strength with CRQ fatigue | Unadjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg | 0.04 (95% CI 0.03–0.05), p<0.0001; z=7.38 |

Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg | 0.02 (95% CI 0.01–0.03), p<0.0001; z=5.61 | |

Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 5 more kg | 0.12 (95% CI 0.08–0.17), p<0.0001; z=5.61 | |

Covariates | Age 0.003 (se 0.005, z=0.52, p=0.60); FEV_{1} -0.003 (se 0.003, z= -0.81, p=0.42); dyspnoea 0.401 (se 0.035, z=11.53, p<0.001); LABA/ICS 0.070 (se 0.134, z=0.52, p=0.60) | |

Association of handgrip strength with CRQ emotional function | Unadjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg | 0.02 (95% CI 0.01–0.03), p<0.0001; z=4.17 |

Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg | 0.01 (95% CI 0.00–0.02), p=0.006; z=2.75 | |

Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 5 more kg | 0.06 (95% CI 0.02–0.10), p=0.006; z=2.75 | |

Covariates | Age 0.013 (se 0.005, z=2.65, p=0.008); FEV_{1} -0.007 (se 0.003, z= -2.33, p=0.020); dyspnoea 0.361 (se 0.033, z=10.90, p<0.001); LABA/ICS 0.141 (se 0.127, z=1.11, p=0.27) | |

Association of handgrip strength with CRQ mastery | Unadjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg | 0.01 (95% CI 0.00–0.02), p=0.009; z=2.62 |

Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg | 0.00 (95% CI -0.01-0.01), p=0.59; z=0.53 | |

Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 5 more kg | 0.01 (95% CI -0.03-0.05), p=0.59; z=0.53 | |

Covariates | Age 0.008 (se 0.005, z=1.73, p=0.08); FEV_{1} -0.002 (se 0.003, z= -0.62, p=0.53); dyspnoea 0.364 (se 0.030, z=11.97, p<0.001); LABA/ICS -0.097 (se 0.117, z= -0.83, p=0.41) |

Data are presented as mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. FEV

_{1}: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; LABA: long-acting β-agonist; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; CRQ; Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire. z-values are reported to show the relative strength of association of each variable in the multivariable regression models. All regression coefficients for continuous variables except for handgrip strength are per increase of 1 unit (1 year for age, 1% predicted for FEV_{1}and 1 point for dyspnoea).