Table 3– Association of handgrip strength with mortality, exacerbations and health-related quality of life (HRQoL)
Mortality
Patients alive at 2 yearsPatients dead at 2 years
Handgrip strength kg36.4±12.230.1±9.9
Association of handgrip strength with mortalityUnadjusted association (hazard ratio per 1 more kg)0.96 (95% CI 0.93–0.98), p=0.002; z= -3.06
Adjusted association (hazard ratio per 1 more kg)0.97 (95% CI 0.94–1.00), p=0.04; z= -2.05
Adjusted association (hazard ratio per 5 more kg)0.84 (95% CI 0.72–1.00) p=0.04; z= -2.05
CovariatesAge 1.09 (se 0.021, z=4.27, p<0.001); FEV1 0.97 (se 0.010, z= -3.02, p=0.003); dyspnoea 1.29 (se 0.167, z=1.97, p=0.49); LABA/ICS 0.56 (SE 0.26, z= -1.22, p=0.22)
Exacerbations
Patients with no exacerbation during 2 years of follow-upPatients with ≥1 exacerbation during 2 years of follow-up
Handgrip strength kg19.4±8.518.1±8.1
Association of handgrip strength with exacerbationsUnadjusted association (incidence rate ratio per 1 more kg)0.99 (95% CI 0.98–1.00), p=0.06; z= -1.86
Adjusted association (incidence rate ratio per 1 more kg)0.99 (95% CI 0.98–1.00), p=0.14; z= -1.48
CovariatesAge 0.99 (se 0.006, z=–0.79, p=0.43); FEV1 0.98 (se 0.004, z= -5.63, p<0.001); dyspnoea 1.05 (se 0.055, z=0.99, p=0.32); LABA/ICS 1.56 (se 0.34, z= -2.02, p=0.044)
HRQoL from baseline to 2-year follow-up
Association of handgrip strength with CRQ dyspnoeaUnadjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg0.03 (95% CI 0.02–0.04), p<0.0001; z=5.05
Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg0.03 (95% CI 0.02–0.04), p<0.0001; z=5.39
Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 5 more kg0.14 (95% CI 0.09–0.20), p<0.0001; z=5.39
CovariatesAge 0.008 (se 0.007, z=1.15, p=0.25); FEV1 0.032 (se 0.004, z=8.20, p<0.001); LABA/ICS -0.47 (se 0.17, z= -2.78, p=0.005)
Association of handgrip strength with CRQ fatigueUnadjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg0.04 (95% CI 0.03–0.05), p<0.0001; z=7.38
Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg0.02 (95% CI 0.01–0.03), p<0.0001; z=5.61
Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 5 more kg0.12 (95% CI 0.08–0.17), p<0.0001; z=5.61
CovariatesAge 0.003 (se 0.005, z=0.52, p=0.60); FEV1 -0.003 (se 0.003, z= -0.81, p=0.42); dyspnoea 0.401 (se 0.035, z=11.53, p<0.001); LABA/ICS 0.070 (se 0.134, z=0.52, p=0.60)
Association of handgrip strength with CRQ emotional functionUnadjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg0.02 (95% CI 0.01–0.03), p<0.0001; z=4.17
Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg0.01 (95% CI 0.00–0.02), p=0.006; z=2.75
Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 5 more kg0.06 (95% CI 0.02–0.10), p=0.006; z=2.75
CovariatesAge 0.013 (se 0.005, z=2.65, p=0.008); FEV1 -0.007 (se 0.003, z= -2.33, p=0.020); dyspnoea 0.361 (se 0.033, z=10.90, p<0.001); LABA/ICS 0.141 (se 0.127, z=1.11, p=0.27)
Association of handgrip strength with CRQ masteryUnadjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg0.01 (95% CI 0.00–0.02), p=0.009; z=2.62
Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 1 more kg0.00 (95% CI -0.01-0.01), p=0.59; z=0.53
Adjusted difference on scale from 1–7 per 5 more kg0.01 (95% CI -0.03-0.05), p=0.59; z=0.53
CovariatesAge 0.008 (se 0.005, z=1.73, p=0.08); FEV1 -0.002 (se 0.003, z= -0.62, p=0.53); dyspnoea 0.364 (se 0.030, z=11.97, p<0.001); LABA/ICS -0.097 (se 0.117, z= -0.83, p=0.41)
  • Data are presented as mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; LABA: long-acting β-agonist; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; CRQ; Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire. z-values are reported to show the relative strength of association of each variable in the multivariable regression models. All regression coefficients for continuous variables except for handgrip strength are per increase of 1 unit (1 year for age, 1% predicted for FEV1 and 1 point for dyspnoea).