Table 1– Characteristics and outcomes of the study cohort presenting with community-acquired pneumonia (all cause)
Whole cohortPPENo PPEComplicated PPEp-value#
Subjects92020971156
Demographics
 Age years71.7 (57.8–80.8)70.7 (51.0–79.9)72.0 (59.1–80.5)51.3 (38.7–68.9)0.096
 Male546 (59.3)116 (55.5)430 (60.5)33 (58.9)0.198
 Residential or nursing care home resident51 (5.5)8 (3.8)43 (6.0)1 (1.8)0.222
 WHO performance status ≥2138 (15.0)28 (13.4)118 (16.6)5 (8.9)0.277
 COPD244 (26.5)49 (23.4)195 (27.4)7 (12.5)0.252
 Ischaemic heart disease145 (15.8)28 (13.4)118 (16.6)7 (12.5)0.625
 Diabetes mellitus130 (14.1)35 (16.7)95 (13.4)8 (14.3)0.200
 Cerebrovascular disease103 (11.2)26 (12.4)77 (10.8)6 (10.7)0.506
 Asthma102 (11.1)28 (13.4)74 (10.4)5 (8.9)0.226
 Congestive cardiac failure74 (8.0)20 (9.6)54 (7.6)4 (7.1)0.349
 Active malignancy67 (7.3)13 (6.2)54 (7.6)4 (7.1)0.509
 Dementia32 (3.5)5 (2.4)27 (3.8)0 (0)0.329
 Mean Charlson comorbidity index (95% CI)1.48 (1.37–1.59)1.57 (1.32–1.81)1.45 (1.33–1.57)1.17 (0.67–1.67)0.734
 Influenza vaccination in preceding 12 months558/855 (65.3)118/194 (60.8)440/661 (66.6)25/54 (46.3)0.140
 PPV in preceding 10 years383/824 (46.5)85/191 (44.5)298/633 (47.1)14/53 (26.4)0.532
Severity0.002
 PSI class I–III395 (42.9)68 (32.5)327 (46.0)31 (55.4)
 PSI class IV336 (36.5)89 (42.6)247 (34.7)18 (32.1)
 PSI class V189 (20.5)52 (24.9)137 (19.3)7 (12.5)
Aetiology0.007
 Pneumococcal366 (39.8)100 (47.8)266 (37.4)30 (53.6)
 Nonpneumococcal554 (60.2)109 (52.2)445 (62.6)26 (46.4)
Outcome
 30-day mortality92 (10.0)29 (13.9)63 (8.9)4 (7.1)0.034
 LOS days7 (4–12)10 (5–17)6 (4–11)13 (5–15)<0.001
 IRVS82 (8.9)23 (11.0)59 (8.3)5 (8.9)0.227
  • Data are presented as n, median (interquartile range), n (%) or n/N (%), unless otherwise stated. PPE: para-pneumonic effusion; WHO: World Health Organization; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PPV: adult pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; PSI: pneumonia severity index; LOS: length of hospital stay; IRVS: need for intensive respiratory or vasopressor support. #: p-value compares patients with PPE to those without PPE.