Table 2– Prevalence of respiratory pathogens in nasopharyngeal aspirates and pleural effusion samples from 28 children hospitalised with parapneumonic empyema
Nasopharyngeal aspiratesPleural effusion
Bacterial detection
Streptococcus pneumoniae1519
Staphylococcus aureus21
Viral detection
 Parainfluenza viruses4
 Human metapneumovirus4
 Human coronavirus NL632
 Respiratory syncitial virus2
 Influenza A and B0
Cases of co-detection60
Undiagnosed5 (18)5 (20)
TTMV detection#
 Positive samples89
 Cases of co-detection6 (with one or several viruses)6 (with S. pneumoniae)
  • Data are presented as n or n (%). Clinical criteria were based on respiratory complaints and fever, difficulty in breathing, pulmonary infiltrates compatible with pneumonia, a chest radiograph at admission confirmed by ultrasounds, white blood cell counts >20 G·L−1 or neutrophilis >10 G·L−1 and C-reactive protein level >60 mg·L−1 after 12 h of fever. Undiagnosed nasal aspiration and pleural effusion samples came from different patients, except for one of them. TTMV: torque teno mini virus. TTMV was detected by real-time PCR with primers and probes indicated in table 1. #: Isolation and genetic characterisation of TTMV sequences in undiagnosed pleural effusion samples.