Table 3– Secretion of inflammatory mediators into the supernatant of 2 h-infected A549 cells at 6 h post-infection
Soluble mediators pg·mL−1MockTTMV-LY1TTMV-LY2TTMV-LY3
Pro-inflammatory cytokines
 IFN-γ4.5±3.020.5±4.97.8±2.77.2±0.8
 IL-226.6±5.251.3±6.832.3±2.433.4±1.2*
 IL-12 (p40)16.6±4.236.3±4.9*22.2±1.0*22.3±1.1*
 IL-12 (p70)10.2±1.820.9±2.1*10.1±0.810.6±0.6
Anti-inflammatory cytokines
 IL-1054.8±4.995.7±5.4*60.2±1.255.3±0.9
 IL-1382.0±6.1120.2±1.3*94.6±1.2*89.2±3.8
Chemotactic cytokines
 RANTES28.1±0.167.7±12.4*71.6±14.2*33.1±2.4
 MIP-1β43.4±1.967.9±0.4**43.5±2.744.2±2.6
 MCP-1868±1971271±482108±5241610±550
Growth factors
 G-CSF55.5±3.6176.2±38.1*58.1±1.758.5±4.0
 GM-CSF30.9±7.556.9±1.0*44.1±2.740.0±5.9
 IL-737.8±6.577.8±7.1*41.1±1.139.2±1.3
 VEGF156.5±20.0218.6±13.5254.6±32.8*220.9±42.3
  • Data are expressed as mean±sd. Experiments were performed twice in duplicate. TTMV-LY: torque teno mini virus isolates; IFN: interferon; IL: interleukin; MIP: macrophage inflammatory protein; MCP: monocyte chemoattractant protein; G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor. Bold type indicates a trend towards statistical significance. *: statistically different from mock at p<0.05 (t-test); **: statistically different from mock at p<0.01 (t-test).